Campylobacter Infection in Humans

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Campylobacter jejuni, a motile, curved S or spiral shaped Gram negative rod, microaerophilic, is a common cause of human gastrointestinal infection (Garvis et al., 1996). Drinking water may be the common reservoir causing campylobacter infection in human and animals, including wild birds and poultry (Kapperud et al., 2003). Under coocked chicken seems to be linked with a great proportion of campylobacteriosis (Phillips et al., 1997). Poor hygienic conditions and the existence of animals in the house are also responsible for campylobacter infection (Rao et al., 2001). The presence of garbage in cooking areas and deficiency of knowledge about the proper sanitary disposal of faeces are the leading risk factors behind getting this infection (Ghosh et al., 2013). Among other risk factors, red meat, unpasteurised milk, unwashed vegetables and fruit, wild bird faeces, compost and sewage are also important (Whiley et al., 2013). Diarrhea is responsible for one child death out of nine children in the world which makes it the second contributing cause of death in children below the age of five. Annual death rate due to diarrhea in children under the age of five is 10% worldwide (Liu et al., 2012). Among 139 low and middle income countries including Pakistan 1.9 billion events of childhood diarrhea occured in 1990 and approximately 1.7 billion events in 2010 (Walker et al., 2012). The European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control examined the data provided by 27 European Union Member states on the occurrence of zoonoses and food-borne outbreaks in 2011. According to which campylobact... ... middle of paper ... ...) found the 8.3% incidence of campylobacter infection in 442 diarrheal children aged 0-72 months old. Weinberger et al. (2013) studied the prevalence of campylobacter spp. infection in Israeli children during 1999-2010. The incidence of infection in children less than two years of age was 356.12 cases/100,000 population. Mukherjee et al. (2013) studied the prevalence of campylobacter infection in diarrheal children hospitalized at Infectious Disease Hospital in Kolkata, India. 3,186 stool samples were screened during January 2008 to December 2010. The isolation rate of C.jejuni in children less than 5 years of age was significantly high upto 10.0%. Lengerh et al. (2013) conducted a study in which 285 diarrheal children under the age of 5 years old were included. Among 285 fecal samples cultured, 44 (15.4%) of them were found positive for campylobacter jejuni.
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