It is used to determine the blood type and Rh factor of a mother and the fetus. This is to prevent the complication caused by antigen-antibody reaction of Rh group of the mother and the fetus which may lead to haemolytic anemia. Besides that, blood test is also able to detect some of the blood borne diseases such as HIV, Hepatitis B, C and D and rubella. Ultrasound, on the other hand, can determine the growth and development of a fetus in the amniotic sac. It can detect structural defects such as spinal bifida and anencephaly, congenital heart defects, gastrointestinal and kidney malformations and cleft lip.
Some of the tests done are blood tests to tell if the women has a higher predisposition t o have a baby with spina bifida, or fetal Down syndrome. (Blatt 1997) These tests are safer than the invasive tests and many people are hoping that someday all of the genetic screening done will be done on the mothers blood, this te chnique is called fetal cell sorting. But today many of the tests that can be done on the fetus require invasive techniques, like a needle for amniocentesis and precutaneous umbilical blood sampling where a needle is inserted into an umbilical vein in ue tero. These tests can actually screen the genes of the fetuses. And in some situations women choose to terminate pregnancies because of the results.
The results indicate that their baby is a female with Turner Syndrome. This condition is caused by a missing X chromosome and results in short stature, ovarian failure, and medical problems involving the heart, thyroid glands, and kidneys. Some of these conditions can be treated and managed with great success. The question that arises after diagnoses is whether or not they will choose to terminate the pregnancy with an abortion or carry the child to full term. The availability of methods that determine the genetic predisposition of a fetus gives rise to a whole array of questions and issues that must be confronted as we develop policies to deal with genetic testing.
This is called prenatal genetic screening. It allows the doctors to take a small blood or tissue sample from the mother and doctors can then test for deformities, diseases, and mutations. Once the test results show that something is wrong with the unborn fetus, the mother then can decide if she wants to abort the child or not. There are many benefits to prenatal genetic testing, but at a certain point it becomes morally wrong to eliminate unborn babies because of their defects. "Prenatal genetic testing is checking for genetic disorders by looking for changes in a person's DNA" (Childress 519).
Scientist has discovered by a mother giving her blood sample and the father giving a spit sample, an entire genome of their fetus can be born. Clinical test capitalize on this DNA to discern the baby’s sex and determine whether mother and child have incompatible Rh blood groups, which can lead to fatal complications. Every gene and every chromosome known about a baby’s genetic make-up, while still in the u... ... middle of paper ... ... to go through the DNA make-up child. When choosing prenatal DNA sequencing there are many positives that come along with it, such as being able to lessen the amount of genetic diseases within in the child. Although there can be many positives, there are many negatives that fall along with prenatal DNA sequencing, such as whether its right for the parent to alter their child’s genes.
In adults, sampling methods typically involve taking DNA through blood draws, hair pulls, skin samples, or samples of other tissues. In fetuses, however, there are two techniques that can be used to obtain genetic information: amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling. Through amniocentesis, amniotic fluid is taken from the placental sac and tested directly. The other method is chorionic villus sampling, where a tissue sample is tested after being taken directly from the fetus (National Library of Medicine, 2014). Genetic testing has become a routine procedure to test newborns for various genetic diseases.
There are many possible reasons why only a faint line appears on a pregancy test: Testing too early. This is one common reason why women get inaccurate results from home pregnancy tests, which detects Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) levels in the urine. This hormone increases during the early weeks of pregnancy and is detected in the urine. However, taking the test too early can make a difference in how much hormone is present in the urine. A home pregnancy test should not be done earlier than 10 days after you ovulate; it is ideally taken after missing your period.
PGD is a screening of the embryos to prevent any inherited disorders. The procedure usually occurs when the embryo is about 6-10 cells according to size. Acid is then used to get into the embryo and one cell is drawn out; this cell is then screened to identify whether the fetus is a match for their existing ill sibling and whether it will develop a genetic disorder. Pros and cons are positive (for) and negative (against) aspects of a subject. Some approvingly agree with the creation of spare part babies because of the reason that before being born, they undergo a embryos screening to prevent ... ... middle of paper ... ...her argument was the feeling of being neglected if the child was born as a spare part baby.
Amniocentesis offers many advantages to the expecting mother. This test determines whether the unborn baby has genetic or chromosomal abnormalities. It identifies several hundred genetic disorders including some of the most common such as Down syndrome and Edward’s syndrome. It can also identify other genetic disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, Huntington’s disease, Sickle cell disease, and cystic fibrosis. Other testing techniques such as ultrasounds pick up on these problems.
Doctors do an x-ray using fluid that is injected into the uterus to see if it properly travels through the fallopian tubes this is called Hysterosalpingography. They will make sure there is no blockage or scarring with a Laparoscopy. Ovarian Reserve Testing this done to find out how effective the eggs are after ovulation. Genetic Test for abnormal genes interfering. A Pelvic Ultrasound will be done to check the fallopian tubes, uterus, and ovaries, also a Chlamydia Test.