The X-ray picture is able to be printed though the use of specialized X-ray machines. These machines work similarly to everyday cameras however, instead of using light with frequencies within the visible spectrum, the machines use electromagnetic waves with much higher frequencies which are consequently able to penetrate through thicker mediums. (howstuffworks, 2013)‘Barium Enema’ is an examination of the intestines in which a small amount of radioactive material (Barium) is inserted into the body; showing doctors even the smallest of blockages through the use of a screen. Cardiologists also use a form of X-ray (an angiogram) in order to detect blockages. This works in a very similar manner to that of the Barium Enema.
A laser then scans the plate, which is converted to digital format. The results are fed directly into a computer for viewing. (Karr, 2008) Traditional radiology, also known as film screen or analog, stores images on a photographic plate. This works by an X-ray tube generating a beam of X-rays, which is aimed at the patient. The X-rays are filtered through a device called an X-ray filter and strike an undeveloped film, which is held tightly to a screen of light-emitting phosphors in ... ... middle of paper ... ...is most useful and most cost effective for their practice.
Why augmented reality application in computer aided surgery and medicine an interesting topic? Is the integration between real and virtual object really gives benefits for the surgery field? Surgery performs most of their works are deal with visualization and imaging during operation for necessary image for example using computerized tomography(CT). CT scans using 3D image to visualize inside of an object. Inside the CT scans we can see layers of tissues inside our organ and transmitted it to displays part of our body on the CT screen.
A. Computed Tomography (CT) Computed Tomography (CT) is a biomedical imaging technique which produces cross-section images also called "slices" of anatomy of the human body. Radiographic beams are made incident on the human body. The reflected radio beams create a detailed computerized picture taken with a specialized X-ray machine. CT is more precise than a standard X-ray, and provides a clearer image. Fig.1 shows a CT scan of transverse view of the brain.
As a starting point in CT diagnostic imaging the form of radiation used to provide an image are x-rays photons , this can also be called an external radiation dose which detect a pathological condition of an organ or tissue and therefore it is more organ specific. However the physics process can be described as the radiation passes through the body it is received by a detector and then integrated by a computer to obtain a cross-sectional image (axial). In this case the ability of a CT scanner is to create only axial two dimensional images using a mathematical algorithm for image reconstruction. In contrast in RNI the main property for producing a diagnostic image involves the administration of small amounts of radiotracers or usually called radiopharmaceutical drugs to the patient by injection or oral. Radio meaning the emitted of gamma rays and pharmaceutical represents the compound to which a nuclide is bounded or attached.
“CT is useful for evaluating soft tissue involvement of lesions or determining the extent of fractures. In general, CT is useful to add to the anatomic or pathologic information already obtained by conventional radiography” (Bontrager & Lampignano, 2010). “Nuclear medicine is more sensitive and generally provides earlier evidence than other modalities because it assesses the physiologic aspect rather than the anatomic aspect of these conditions. Nuclear medicine uses very small amounts of radioactive materials to diagnose and treat disease” (Nuclear Medicine, 2013). “Ultrasound can be used in several different ways such as monitoring an unborn baby, diagnosing a condition or guiding a surgeon during certain procedures by using sound waves” (Ultrasound, 2011).
The Tests that are done by MRI does much the same as the CT scan without using X-rays. CT scan and MRI are used in many medical specialties, in addition to the musculoskeletal system. MRI is extremely accurate when it comes to detecting dis... ... middle of paper ... ... and bring the life expectancy of individuals suffering illness such as brain tumors and certain cancers. 1-Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The use of a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer to produce electronic images of specific atoms and molecular structures in solids, especially human cells, tissues, and organs (yahoowebdictionary.com). Example: MRI scan uses magnetic resonance imaging.
RF is relatively safe but it also has its possible complications. A special probe is directed in the tumor under the help of radiographers who guide the probe using imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound (US). A radiofrequency wave is passed through the trobe to heat the tumor tissue which is near the needle tip to cause tumor ablation. Thermal
This image is called a radiograph or x ray picture. The image it's self may have many forms. It could be a common radiograph, such as a chest x ray; a tomograph (Greek for "section"), which is a radiograph obtained by timing the x ray exposure to correspond with the movement of the x ray tube and film in opposite directions around the plane of the body; or, finally, a computerized axial tomography (CAT or CT) scan. Which is a computer analysis of a sharply limited, thin x ray beam passed circumferentially through an area of the body, giving the doctor of Technician a cross-sectional image. Much like that of slicing a loaf of bread into sections.
The table is then moved, and the process is repeated, resulting in a series of thin slice images of the body over the region of interest (e.g. brain, breast, liver). These thin slice images can be assembled into a three dimensional representation of the patient's body Nowadays, PET scanning devices are most often used in conjunction with CT scanners, so that a more accurate image can be observed by the doctor for easier diagnosis of diseases or disorders. SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) works in a way much the same to PET. But the radioactive substances used in SPECT (Xenon-133, Technetium-99, Iodine-123) have longer decay times than those used in PET, and emit single instead of double gamma rays MRI has a more complex principle for its function; it works by creating a magnetic field so strong that the hydrogen protons in the body are forced into alignment with the magnetic field.