1. Compare and contrast the key features of AL and CLT approach
Audio-lingual approach Communicative teaching language approach
Approach Nature of language - Structural view
- Language: a system of structural phonological, grammatical and lexical patterns to express the functional meanings - Functional view
- Language: a medium for social interaction and communication
Nature of language learning Behaviorism – Habit formation via over-learning Learners’ engagement in authentic and meaningful task to promote language learning. (the learning process is influenced by linguistic, social, cognitive and individual factors)
Design Objectives - Focus on positive habit of language response
- Start to focus on fluency (meaning)
-Start to focus on oral competence - Focus on learners’ communicative competences development ( including linguistic competence , actional competence, discourse competence, socio-cultural competence and strategic competence)
- Focus on both accuracy(form) and fluency (meaning) (Fluency is more important than accuracy)
Syllabus-content and its organization - Linguistic functions = teaching units;
- Sequence = ascending difficulty/complexity;
- Teaching materials = dialogues
- The teaching content is organized functionally.
- Content: relevant to learner’s need/ level and learning styles/strategies.
-The teaching content would normally be organized:
- notionally (theme-based);
- in a task-based manner;
- Or with combination of two or all above
Common activities - The only form of activities in the lesson follows these steps:
1. Exposure to L2 phonological sample in dialogues
2. Exposure to Teacher’s modeling
3. Imitation and drills;
4. Habit formation;
5. Inductive and implicit learning o...
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...sult when they are in a team or group because of interpersonal relationship.
- Impulsive learners: Students pay more attention to fluency than to accuracy in speaking, which causes more mistakes.
In CLT approach, students have the opportunities to
- Access with interesting and meaningful materials, such as linguistic games, role plays, and problem solving materials which help them improve their ability in discover the details themselves.
- Communicate with each other in the classroom, have prominence to work in group.
- Have positive attitudes towards mistakes and learning from mistakes which helps them maintain both fluency and accuracy.
To, T.T., Nguyen, M.H.T, & Nguyen, T.M.T. (Eds.). (2011). An Introduction to Language Teaching Methods. Hanoi: Vietnam National University