CECS

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The human body is naturally susceptible to injury in everyday living environments, and is more prominently susceptible in sporting environments. The risk of acquiring a certain injury is inevitable as causations can pertain to anatomical and physiological conditions, as well as extrinsic factors, such as choice of activity. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a prevalent injury of the lower leg that primarily affects athletes participating in running sports, and occasionally non-athletic individuals, as described by Edmundsson, Toolanen, and Sojka in 2007 (1). Whitesides et al. 2013, state that before the first diagnoses of CECS in the 1950s, it was initially believed that CECS was a form of shin splints (anterior tibial enthesistis) (2). Due to the extensive research completed on the condition, today, it is demonstrated to be a distinct clinical entity. With such extensive research, an overlap has been established in literature when defining the condition, as the causation is truly unknown. The most commonly accepted definition as asserted by Moheler et al. in 1997, Blackman in 2000, and Hislop et al. in 2003, describes CECS as a condition which muscle compartment pressure is increased due to chronic exertion which interferes with the blood circulation of the tissues at the specific compartment resulting in ischemia, pain, and short term neurological deficits (3-5). This paper will explore CECS of the anterior crural compartment of the lower leg to establish an understanding of its prominence in the anterior crural compartment, and whether or not a change in running mechanics will alleviate or prevent such injury from occurring. The running mechanics of human beings has altered over the course of many years from a d... ... middle of paper ... ...actions to effectively resist that movement, a deceleration will occur in the muscles which in turn absorb some of the ground reaction force exerted on to the body (11). The tibialis anterior muscle is at this moment acting as a brake by eccentrically contracting to control the lowering of the forefoot, temporarily increasing intra-compartmental pressure (17,18). It is evident that through the adapted mechanics of walking and running with a heel strike by wearing such technologically advanced footwear that obtain padding on the region of the heel, CECS has naturally become a prevalent injury amongst humanity. Moreover, it is important to note that there currently is no further association with the development of CESC, the long term effect of excessive eccentric contraction is believed to be due to the decrease in compliance and loss of elasticity of fascia (11).
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