As the boy reads on he finds out that in the late nineteenth century, his ancestors suddenly identified themselves as German and Italian, what he expected they would be from the start. So, what happened? Divided between the conservative elite and the common liberal, Italy and Germany became unified nations through the institution of a strong military, economy, government, and the influence of a rich ancestry. Each member of society was affected by the move towards nationalism in different ways; the monarchy, liberals, and working classes in Italy and Germany embodied the results of nationalism throughout Europe. The conservative contingency of both Italy and Germany believed that the only way they could build a strong country that would withstand the tests of time was through the building of a strong economy.
To illustrate this point, one needs only to look at two different forms of fascism that arose in Europe in the early Twentieth Century, Italian Fascism and Nazi Germany. The original form of fascism was born in Italy by Benito Mussolini. Mussolini was a physically imposing man who was considered attractive. This pleasing appearance was combined with his charismatic leadership and powerful oration, and he quickly rose in power as a result. In Italian Fascism, there was very clear emphasis on war and the reclamation of the Roman empire.
Facist Italy by John Whittam In the book “Fascist Italy”, author John Whittam gives an in-depth analysis of the biggest mass movement in Italian history, and the world for that matter. Fascism was a major political movement that has left resounding effects on the history of Italy. Benito Mussolini was one of Italy’s greatest leaders, and was the leader of the first national movement called Fascism. The Fascist movement was quite complex and many components were involved. Fascism was able to capitalize on Italians who saw themselves as nationalists with a strong sense of Italian pride.
In The Discourses on Livy Machiavelli discusses things that were currently happening within Rome as a result of the public council, the decision made by the Roman people in an attempt to increase the empire, as well as the actions made by select men which made Rome a successful nation. During the times of political uncertainty Machiavelli responds to the need for a stable political structure and the moral basis for which this structure would exists, as well as the interest of the individual and the state in conjunction with the Italian environment in an age of great city states. Italian politics during the 15th century were in a state of flux as a result of the Renaissance in the 14th century. Machiavelli attempts to outline the ideal autocratic regime which would emphasize the need for realism over the currently favored idealist mindset. Current Italian political and ethical goals were based on the idea that the people must wait for changes to occur by chance, whereas Machi... ... middle of paper ... ...es…but enables men of private fortune…” (Machiavelli Chapter XIV).
In Europe, starting in the year of 1800, there were many people who would be a part of different movements that would drastically shape the continent into what it is in present-day. Nationalism, imperialism, and Marxism helped shape Europe in the modern age in numerous ways. Each one of these topics would be very significant in the making of the newly invented Europe that is to be. These three points to helping shape Europe did not become known just out of thin air, though. The Napoleonic Era, led by Napoleon Bonaparte, was actually a stepping stone to nationalism, imperialism, and Marxism.
Machiavelli lived in Florence, Italy, at this time politically organized by city states. Machiavelli wanted to free Italy from foreign rule. As well as, unite and strengthen the Italian city states. Today we know Machiavelli as, “one of the founders of philosophy of history and one of the first to create a political science based on the studying of historical actions.”(Dr. Mike). Machiavelli is chief interest of his “professional life was foreign policy, and… the subject bulks large in The Prince.”(Adams).
It set about broadening the scope of modern architecture by formulating clear strategies for dealing with the industrialisation and urbanisation of Italy . During the time fascism and mussolini was in rule and modernism was previant it italy. The rationalist architects adhered to the ideals of fasisicm not only politically but stylisitical aswell. They did not just play along with fascism to be able to creature architecutre, but where fully invested in the movement of the era. The stylings of rationalsim differed that from other totalitarian nations at the time, mainly german, whos styles more tended towards that of neo-classicism.
Prompted by Napoleon III of France, Napoleon III’s dictatorship showed how the national state and its programs appealed to both the rich and poor, conservative and radical. (Evans, 2011) Nationalism’s growth led to government and politicians to respond effectively to the political and social demands of the people. The widespread effect of nationalism led to the unification of nation states. Nationalism led to the unification of Germany. In 1865-1871, the prime minister of Prussia Otto von Bismarck used nationalism to unify the originally separated German provinces.
This was due to the fact of the strong army of the Austrian General Radetsky. As a result, Charles Albert abdicated and was succeeded by Victor Emmanuel II, who played a greater role in the final and successful Unification of Italy in 1870. The development of Nationalism from 1830 to 1848 can be considered as the period where the core ideas of the Unification of Italy truly sprang. Driven by the ambition of Mazzini, to the influences of writers and philosophers, further to the application through media, economy, and religion, all led to the strengthening of nationalism throughout many areas in Italy. Even though their first official attempt to suppress the Austrians and establish a unification had failed in the Revolutions of 1848, it had delivered an even stronger desire for a unified Italy and had proved that unity among the states was possible.
Anthony Pagden and David Armitage have maintained that the influences of the ancient Roman Empire provided valuable lessons to early modern state builders. Medieval Europe was a feudal period of expansion of territory and consolidation of power. Once the powerful monarchs of Spain, England, and France had secured their supremacy, they competed amongst each other to be the undisputed Lord of All the World. Their imperial ambitions made America the proving ground in a competitive political contest. Pagden, in Lords of All the World: Ideologies of Empire in Spain, Britain and France c.1500-c.1800, argues that ancient imperial examples were directly related to the various imperial policies of the competing super powers since all deployed conquest at some point and in differing levels as the principle tool of acquiring territory and resources.