On the morning of September 11, 2001, 19 terrorists (with strong ties to Al Qaeda), on four separate planes, slaughtered almost 3000 civilians at the World Trade Center and at the Pentagon ("9/11 Attacks"). Al Qaeda is widely known as the most feared terrorist organization. It is a global Islamic militant organization, and its location cannot be determined because of its secrecy and the fact that its militants operate all over the world. It commits acts that are considered terrorism. Terrorism is the use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims (Currie 70). Al Qaeda plans to do just this with the terror that they invoke. Al Qaeda did not start as an organization made for terror. Instead, it started as a legitimate military base for the training of the mujahideen, who were the group fighting against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan. Osama bin Laden started Al Qaeda with the money that his wealthy Saudi father left him when he died, when the Soviets invaded Afghanistan (Moyer). He called the invasion an attack on Islam itself. Soon enough, though, Al Qaeda grew into a group recruiting bloody jihadis, spreading fear, and punishing those against their views. (Currie 70-71)
Michael D. Greenberg, Peter Chalk, Henry H. Willis, Ivan Khilko, Davis S. Ortiz, “Maritime Terrorism: Risk and Liability,” (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2006)
While specific intelligence of a looming attack would be ideal, when it comes to calculating a vulnerability assessment, we are more likely to be forced to assume risks and weigh those risks amongst many factors. Every student should understand the procedures involved in determining an overall likelihood score of a terrorist attack utilizing the Threat and Vulnerability Assessment. This paper will cover the assets with the highest likelihood scores, as well as those with the lowest scores. Additionally, it will cover the methods in which these scores were obtained and whether I agree with the final outcome, including any biases I may have observed.
Therefore, defining terrorism is paramount to understanding and developing responses to the escalating threat of terrorism. Using the legal jargon and voice of a national government, the United States code section 2656f(d) defines terrorism to mean the “premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine
In Chapter 1 of “Inside Terrorism” political analyst Bruce Hoffman, explains that the term “terrorism” has undergone numerous definitions over the course of history, starting with the French Revolution of 1789-94. Hoffman explains that according to the Oxford English Dictionary, terrorism can be defined basically as an act or policy enacted by a government to strike fear into those against whom the act is against, to coerce them into submission to the policies of the government. He also explains that a more helpful definition, that of a terrorist, rather than the act of terrorism, provides a better way of defining terrorism. He also explains that the term terrorist is more of a political term than a specific action. (Hoffman 2006) Sociologist Charles Tilly also mentions the French Revolution as the earliest reference to the term of terrorism. They also agree that these early references to terrorism was primarily carried out by governments as a means of oppressing those who would revolt against them. (Tilly 2004) Both authors also agree that although the roots of the term terrorist began during the late 1789s. The concept as well as the definition of terrorism has changed over time, particularly in recent years since Sept. 11, 2001. As the definition of terrorism has changed over the years, so have the methods of dealing with
What is terrorism? The FBI defines terrorism as the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. Many people believe terrorism only applies to the middle east or regimented groups such as ISIS but in reality; terrorism can be a solo individual such as the Unabomber that was active between the years of 1978-1995. Modern day terrorists often use groups often referred to as ‘cells’ to accomplish their sinister objectives. The purpose of cells is so that if one cell is compromised, it will not have any effect on other cells or the main conspirator pulling the strings of the cells. Terrorism can
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defines terrorism on the basis of three characteristics. In order for an act to be considered terrorism, it needs to be (1) a violent act, or acts dangerous to human life that violates laws; (2) appear to be intended (i) to intimidate or coerces civilian population; (ii) to influence policies of a government by coercion or intimidation; or (iii) to affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, kidnapping, or assassination. The third characteristic that needs to be present is (3) the act needs to occur primarily outside the territorial jurisdiction of the United States, or surpass national boundaries in terms of the means by which they are accomplished, the persons they appear intended to intimidate or coerce, or the locale in which their perpetrators operate or seek asylum (Definitions, 2013).
Throughout the 21st century, various politicians have attempted to define terrorism. Yet, terrorism is a broad topic and having searched for the true meaning of terrorism, the universal definition of terrorism does not exist. The UN Security Council Resolution 1566 (2004) gives a definition of terrorism as “criminal acts…against civilians, committed with the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury, or taking of hostages, with the purpose to provoke a state of terror in the general public or in a group of persons..” Also, the United States have defined terrorism under the Federal Criminal Code, Title 18. It defines and lists the crimes associate with terrorism . Section 2331 of Chapter 113(B), defines terrorism as, “activities
Terrorism is focused on a one-sided belief that dictates massive destruction of institutions, foundations and national symbols. It represents a philosophy, which does not comply with common sense. Terrorism acts are a matter of individual psychology, relentless ideology, religious commitment, or political passion. The most devastating terrorism attack in the United States was on September 11, 2001. Other U S attacks were the Manhattan attack in 1997, the Anthrax attack in 2001, a prior World Trade Center attack in 1993, the Wall Street Bombing attack in 1920, and the Kalama City bombing in 1995 (Askshintala, 2013). Terrorism attacks have also taken place in Israel, Greece, Chechnya a border between Russia and European countries and India (Askshintala, 2013). All of these attacks and other attacks that were not as devastating have become much of an international legal debate on terrorism. Terrorism should be criminalized under international law.
Terrorism has been around for as long as people can remember, but for the past ten years there's been a dramatic rise in activity. Terrorists use murder, kidnapping, hijacking, and bombings to pursue a political agenda. These criminals are not just subject to the United States, terrorism happens all over the world, in every way, shape and form. There are many types of terrorism and terrorists with many different purposes. The primary reason for terrorist actions is to force a change in their nation's government. If terrorists are not satisfied with their government's political positions, they may end up taking the matters into their own hands. Another reason for terrorist acts is because of hate towards a race, nationality, or religion. “Sociologically, terror is a practice that causes intense fear or suffering, whose aim is to intimidate and to subjugate, especially as a political weapon or policy. Politically, its main function is to intimidate and disorganize the government through fear, so that through these political changes can be achieved” (Taylor 19). The real terrorists of today are the world super powers for attacking other countries for revenge on 9/11 and other terrorist attacks, but these super powers blame other countries for starting it.