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(1991), brand equity is the positive value that a brand name can add to its products, such as Coke, Kodak, Levi’s and Nike. It is critical for firms to develop marketing strategies to create brand equity. Advertising expenditures, the sales force, public relations, slogans or jingles, symbols and packages, warranties, and event marketing are the important factors for companies to establish brand equity (Aaker, 1991; Simon & Sullivan, 1993; Keller, 2003). To measure customer-based brand equity, most marketing researchers employ Keller’s (1993) and Aaker’s (1996) brand equity dimensions. Keller (1993) defined customer-based brand equity as “the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response to the marketing of the brand”.
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