For fifty five years, Americans accepted segregation between the African American and the white race. In the Plessy v. Ferguson case of 1896, the Supreme Court ruled that public facilities that are “separate but equal” do not violate the jurisdiction of the Fourteenth Amendment. Due to this ruling, all spaces including educational facilities in the South were expectedly segregated. However, in 1951, that assumption was uprooted. Oliver Brown, an African American father, attempted to register his daughter Linda in an all-white public school in Topeka, Kansas; expectedly, he and his daughter were turned away.
Linda's father, Oliver Brown, tried to enroll her in the white elementary school, but the principal of the school refused. Brown went to McKinley Burnett, the head of Topeka's branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and asked for help. The NAACP was eager to assist the Browns, as it had long wanted to challenge segregation in public schools. Other black parents joined Brown, and, in 1951, the NAACP requested an injunction that would forbid the segregation of Topeka's public schools (NAACP). The U.S. District Court for the District of Kansas heard Brown's case from June 25-26, 1951.
This case to place in 1954 and helped to end the segregation laws that withheld black and white schools being integrated. Before I begin the story of Linda Brown I would first like to bring up the 1896 case of Plessy vs. Ferguson. This case arose from resentment among the black and Creole residents in New Orleans who felt it unnecessary to pay the cost of separate cars. The bigger issue dealt with the battle between the Louisiana statute of 1890 mandating that railroad cars be separate but equal and the fourteenth amendment of the Constitution stating equality for all. Unfortunately most thought that the fourteenth amendment dealt with political equality not social equality.
With the Brown v. Board of Education decision, Plessy was overturned along with the separate but equal implementation. The Brown v. Board of Education case all started with African American children who were denied acceptance in white schools. In a PBS Article the author discusses how a case was filed against the Topeka Kansas school board by Oliver Brown. Alexander McBride states “Brown v. Board of Education was filed against the Topeka, Kansas school board by representative-plaintiff Oliver Brown, parent of one of the children denied access to Topeka 's white schools. Brow... ... middle of paper ... ...rch 17, 1954 the Supreme Court overturned the “separate but equal” that was implied by Plessy v. Ferguson.
They sought equal civil rights as whites, not only for themselves but also future generations. The Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court case gave African Americans a voice and with this voice they gained the rights they wanted and deserved; with help from plaintiff Oliver Brown, attorney Thurgood Marshall, and the Fourteenth Amendment, the Brown v. Board of Education law was passed. Although the process of this case was long and drawn out it was all worth the time and effort. Oliver Brown, the father of a twelve year old girl by the name of Linda Brown, felt infuriated at the fact that the school board denied his daughter attendance at a school in Topeka, Kansas just blocks away from their home, by the name of Monroe Elementary School. Linda had no choice but to walk a mile to school every day, obligated to pass through hazardous neighborhoods, as well as harsh weather conditions.
Brown wanted to enroll his daughter (Linda Brown) into an all-white school, and she was rejected. They were represented by two of Thurgood Marshall’s assistants in court. When the case was took to the Court the Negro plaintiffs argument was: Segregation of White children in public schools has a detrimental effect upon the colored children. The impact is greater when it has the sanction of the law; for the policy of s... ... middle of paper ... ...nd educational system is a goal worth reaching. On the other side of the outcome people were enraged over schools segregating, President Dwight D. Eisenhower had to send troops into Arkansas in 1957.
The Brown versus Board of Education is a United States Supreme Court case that was ruled on in 1954. The court overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896 that allows a state sponsored racial segregation in education. The Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. The Supreme Court of the United States, with Earl Warren as Chief Justice, voted unanimous (9–0) against racial segregation in education. This court ruling was very controversial and was opposed by most of Southern Caucasians.
A group consisting of Oliver Brown and 12 other parents (20 children involved) wanted equal educational rights and do away with segregation among the school system. Each person was to look for enrollment dates at the “white” schools in their neighborhood and take their children to be admitted. The all white school refused to enroll them because of their race. The families then reported to the NAACP, who they have recruited to help in this legal matter. The Board of Education was in direct violation of the 14th Amendment of the Constitution, which “guarantees all citizens equal protection under the law”, giving cause to file a class action suit.
The Topeka Board Of Education”, the argument was about which school Linda brown should go to. Her father thought it was wrong that she should go to a school for black children that was further away from her home and less well looked after than nearby schools for white children. With the help of the NAACP he took his case to the Supreme Court and they ruled in his favour, overruling the 1896 case of “Plessey vs. The Rail Road Company”. Segregation was now officially illegal.
In the 1976 Runyan v. McCrary case, two black students had been refused admittance into two private schools in Virginia. The Court applied another 1866 law that stated all citizens of The United States had the right to make and enforce contracts as do white citizens. Since the schools went against their publicly advertised admissions contract the Court decided for the students. These two cases are very influential because they used the Thirteenth Amendment to give Congress the right to do away with any remaining "Badges of Slavery." Two cases that were not justly decided were Plessy v. Ferguson and Michael M. v. Superior Court.