I am confident and my self-esteem is unlimited. I have positive and loving thoughts. I am filled with positive energy and vitality. My happiness is growing. I am in control of my life.
Board of Education of Topeka was considered a landmark United States Supreme Court case, in which segregation in public schools between blacks and whites was declared unconstitutional. This case overturned the horrendous “separate but equal” statute that was established in 1863 in the United States Supreme Court case of Plessy v. Ferguson. Parents of twenty African American students who attended elementary school in the Topeka school district filed this case. They called for the school district to reverse its policy on racial segregation in schools. The lower court admits that segregation in schools is detrimental to African American children, but still denies the plaintiffs relief saying that the schools are separate but substantially equal regarding the buildings, transportation, curriculum, and educational qualifications of teachers.
Her willingness to be arrested rather than give in one more time led to the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott” (Beals, 1995, p. 20). Then in February 8, 1956, the NAACP demanded that the schools integrate immediately. The Little Rock governor, Orval Faubus, refused to support integration of the Arkansas schools. As all this unfolded, white citizens became increasingly incandescent and even violent towards blacks (Beals, 1995). In 1955 a group of over 100 students voluntarily signed their name on a paper stating they would like to attend an all-white-school.
About a year later they reiterated the declaration that segregation is unconstitutional and said that they needed to desegregate “with all deliberate speed.” Some school district started to figure out loopholes to get around the desegregation but school officials at Little Rock, AK said that they would agree to desegregate and comply with what the Supreme Court said. School district officials created a system so that black students interested in attending white only schools could go, but there was a catch. They had to be put through a series of rigorous interviews to determine whether they were suited for admission. School officials interviewed abou... ... middle of paper ... ...n (ABHM Pg. 2) Central High, was that they were taking a baby step to gaining equality for their race.
There was a large lawsuit about integration in Little Rock in 1952 that wanted to have black students attend an all white school. Unfortunately, a petition was filed opposing black kids going to an all white school. Miraculously ,May 17, 1954 was the surprising day that the Supreme Court ruled in the case of Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Their ruling stated that segregating public schools made them unequal and was illegal. Segregationists did whatever it was necessary to stop the integration in Central High School.
They sought to change the policy of racial segregation in their school district. The plaintiffs collaborated with the leadership of the local Topeka NAACP to overturn segregation in public schools. In the fall of 1951, the parents tried to enroll their children into the neighborhood schools, but they were denied enrollment in the white schools and told to attend segregated black schools. The District Court noted that segregation in public education had a harmful effect on black children, but denied the need to desegregate schools because “the physical facilities and other ‘tangible’ factors” in Topeka, Kansas were all equal. The District Court confirmed the precedent established in Plessy v. Ferguson by the Supreme Court in 1896 and upheld state laws permitting, or requiring, segregation in public education.
Linda's father, Oliver Brown, tried to enroll her in the white elementary school, but the principal of the school refused. Brown went to McKinley Burnett, the head of Topeka's branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and asked for help. The NAACP was eager to assist the Browns, as it had long wanted to challenge segregation in public schools. Other black parents joined Brown, and, in 1951, the NAACP requested an injunction that would forbid the segregation of Topeka's public schools (NAACP). The U.S. District Court for the District of Kansas heard Brown's case from June 25-26, 1951.
With the Brown v. Board of Education decision, Plessy was overturned along with the separate but equal implementation. The Brown v. Board of Education case all started with African American children who were denied acceptance in white schools. In a PBS Article the author discusses how a case was filed against the Topeka Kansas school board by Oliver Brown. Alexander McBride states “Brown v. Board of Education was filed against the Topeka, Kansas school board by representative-plaintiff Oliver Brown, parent of one of the children denied access to Topeka 's white schools. Brow... ... middle of paper ... ...rch 17, 1954 the Supreme Court overturned the “separate but equal” that was implied by Plessy v. Ferguson.
This case to place in 1954 and helped to end the segregation laws that withheld black and white schools being integrated. Before I begin the story of Linda Brown I would first like to bring up the 1896 case of Plessy vs. Ferguson. This case arose from resentment among the black and Creole residents in New Orleans who felt it unnecessary to pay the cost of separate cars. The bigger issue dealt with the battle between the Louisiana statute of 1890 mandating that railroad cars be separate but equal and the fourteenth amendment of the Constitution stating equality for all. Unfortunately most thought that the fourteenth amendment dealt with political equality not social equality.
Gaines denied both options and sued the state, then hired the NAACP for Thurgood Marshalls service (uscourts.gov). Sweat v. Painter (1950), Herman Sweat applied to the University of Texas which was a white school. The school didn’t want him to be admitted into their school so they set up and unfunded black law school. Herman Sweat then sued the