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In this essay I will discuss, considering Bronfenbrenner’s bio-ecological model, the importance of the individual layers in the model for human development, paying particular attention to cultural and societal differences.
Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917-2005) was born in Russia in 1917 and moved to America at a very young age. He became a psychologist in 1938 and received a doctorate in Developmental Psychology in 1942. In 1948 he accepted a position in Human development, Family studies and Psychology at Cornell University where he remained for the rest of his professional career. Bronfenbrenner spent most of his professional life in a department that contains three different fields. He was not satisfied with what he believed was a fragmented approach to the study of human development, each one with its separate level of analysis (child, society, family, culture, economics and so forth) (Danner, 2009) In response, he developed an ecological system model, listed in his 1979 book The Ecology of Human Development, in which Bronfenbrenner (1979, p.3) states ‘The ecological environment is con...
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