Brief Information on Different Topics: Opium War, Taiping Rebellion, British Raj

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1. Muhammad Ali. 2. Tanzimat Reformsy. 3. Opium War 4. Treaty of Nanjing/Nanking 5. Taiping Rebellion 6. British Raj 7. Sepoy Rebellion 8. Indian National Congress 9. Clipper Ship 1. Muhammad Ali. (1769-1849) Muhammad Ali was the founder of a dynasty that ruled Egypt in the beginning of 19th century to the middle of the 20th century. He encouraged the emergence of the modern Egyptian state. In 1798, Egypt was controlled by the Ottoman Empire, and occupied by French force under Napoleon Bonaparte. The three-year French occupation (1798–1801) had disrupted the country’s traditional political and economic structure. Ali arrived there in 1801 as a commander of a 300 men Albanian regiment sent b the Ottoman government to drive out the French from Egypt. With great political skill, he managed in 1805 to be named the Ottoman sultan’s viceroy with the rank of Pasha. As a viceroy Ali eliminated the Mamluks, the former ruling oligarchy, expropriated the old landholding classes, turned the religious class intro pensioners of the government, restricted activities of the native merchant and artisan groups, neutralized the Bedouins, and crushed all movements of rebellion among the peasants. He now had the task to rebuilt Egypt using his governing powers based on Ottoman principles. However, no groups within Egyptian societies were capable to force fundamental changes or overthrow his Ottoman lord to remove him within his power. Nor was there an ideology of bringing the ruler and the ruled in a national effort. Instead, his efforts resided to himself and his families as its hereditary rulers tan to create a new society. 2. Tanzimat Reforms (1839-1876) The Tanzimat were a series of reforms in the Ottoman Empir... ... middle of paper ... ...d socialism. The organization gained power through the provincial elections of 1947, during the outbreak of World War II, by Congress voting for neutrality. In the 1946 elections, acceptance of partition of India and the formation of the state of Pakistan governed under Nehru’s leadership. Congress retained this support leading into the 1960s. However, after Nehru’s death, the party began to lose support. 9. Clipper Ship In the 1840s, the clipper ship used as a merchant ship; however, a new merchant navy vessel was created by American ship builders to facilitate a faster transportation of cargo overseas. The clipper ship started to get more famous around the world, and was later incorporated by the English ship builders. It became known for its speed and swiftness used for carrying cargo to its intended destination which revolutionized water transportation.

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