The researchers followed earlier study leads by equaling initiation of breastfeeding and formula fed exclusively to equal 1. Along with analyzing other breastfeeding durations including months spent breastfeeding before formula and age child received first formula fed. Also concluded from the earlier studies what maternal and household characteristics encourage the action of breastfeeding and differences in geographic campaign on breastfeeding promotion. The researchers “Control variables included child sex, race, and ethnicity; mother’s age, education, and marital status; and household participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (ever) and number of children” (Gurley-Calvez, Bullinder, & Kapinos, …show more content…
The analysis helped the control and treatment group find means and percentage differences between the Medicaid and privately insured mothers and children before and after the ACA 2012 policy change. All values were analyzed and interpreted to find if the policy changed helped increase breastfeeding rates and duration. Findings were all adequately summarized, along with mentioning whether the values were statistically significant or nonsignificant to the study’s research. The findings from this study were reported to correlate with other studies experimenting the effects of interventions on promoting breastfeeding. As well as, addressing the results to the same study and gave sufficient information needed for evidence-based practice. After reviewing the results from the study on, Effectiveness of primary-care based interventions to promote breastfeeding: Systemic evidence review and meta-analysis for the U.S. preventive services task force, Gurley-Calvez et al. (2018) concluded from the meta-analysis of that study in comparison to their study that, “breastfeeding-support services increased breastfeeding duration by 8 to 11 percentage points” (p. 280). The ACA 2012 policy change did help increase the duration of breastfeeding, which is what the researchers were motivated to …show more content…
It was correctly concluded that with the ACA 2012 policy change, that implements coverage on lactation support services for Medicaid and privately insured mothers and children, helped increased both the number of months spent breastfeeding and just breastfeeding with no formula. According to Gurley-Calvez, Bullinder, and Kapinos (2018), the rate increased from 0.57 to 0.74 months, seen as being clinically significant towards the goal of the ACA policy change (p. 280). This justifies a causal inference that the supports of a no cost lactation devices help prolong the duration of breastfeeding. Limitations didn’t bias nor impact the internal findings of the study. The only limitations identified were the researchers not knowing the type of birth the mother had, small age group of 19 to 23 month old children, and the insurance the mothers had before the ACA policy change. However, these limitations did not significantly affect the results. The findings cannot be generalized to all people because sample included only Medicaid and privately insured mother and children in 25 states such as Michigan, New York, California, Washington, just to name a
The article shortly summarizes new findings of a study published in the scholarly journal Social Science & Medicine, conducted by Assistant Professor of sociology at the Ohio State University Cynthia Colen. The Times Magazine article describes the research done by Colen as a longitudinal study using three populations of 8,237 children, 7,319 siblings and 1,773 paired siblings as its sample where one sibling was breast-fed while the other was not. Sifferlin stated there were eleven outcomes during the study used to determine the impact breast feeding had on the population. The eleven outcomes derived from prior research. The author of the article interpreted the findings of the study and the findings of previous studies of related topics.
The cover of TIME magazine uses pathos to invoke acceptance as a child stands clinging on to his mother’s breast, along with the words, “Are you mom enough?” This assertion can empower some women to do the accepted thing; yet, offend other women, who don’t agree, at the same time. A mother’s primary role is to nurture and guide the growth of her family. The woman, in particular, displays this role in which, “her charge [is] to oversee her child’s physical, intellectual, and spiritual development” (Plant 2010). However, there are many ways to manage a child’s well-being, aside from breastfeeding up to the age of six. Therefore, the cover can imply that mothers. who don’t practice attachment parenting, are not woman enough. Moreover, it doesn’t necessarily make a mother a bad parent if she doesn’t attend to her child’s every cry, sleep beside him at night, or breastfeed him throughout his entire adolescence. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life. Afterwards, their studies suggest that the child “should receive complementary foods that are nutritionally adequate (providing sufficient calories, protein as well as micronutrients needed for proper growth) and safe while continuing to breastfeed for up to 2 years or more” (Children’s Health). Based on their study, there is a positive correlation between weaning a child completely off of his mom by two and his level of independence into toddlerhood.
Mulder (2006) performed literature reviews to develop the defining attributes, model cases, antecedents and consequences, and empirical referents for effective breastfeeding. The eight steps for the concept analysis were fulfilled in the steps of the process.
Zanardo, V., Svegliado, G., Cavallin, F., Giustardi, A., Cosmi, E., Litta, P., & Trevisanuto, D. (2010). Elective cesarean delivery: Does it have a negative effect on breastfeeding? Birth, 37(4), 275-279. Retrieved from http://web.a.ebscohost.com.summit.csuci.edu:2048/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=f4eb05fd-f93d-45bf-aa4d-ef5c14821ea7%40sessionmgr4004&vid=4&hid=4207
Using the Social Ecological Model, or SEM, Dunn, Kalcich, Henning, and Fedrizzi outline the major factors that influence a woman's decision to initiate breastfeeding, and for how long she chooses to do so. The SEM was used in an effort to better comprehensive understanding of what drives a woman's infant feeding method by evaluating the mother's decision on many levels, including individual, interpersonal, community, and on an organizational level. While many
The retrospective cohort study by Grummer-Strawn and Mei (2004) sought to answer the research question: Is increasing duration of breastfeeding associated with a lower risk of overweight among a low-income population of 4 year olds in the United States (US)?35 The researchers aimed to increase the internal validity of their study by including a large sample, controlling for various child and maternal confounders (i.e., covariates), and stratifying analyses by race/ethnicity; however, as previously discussed, study design and execution issues (e.g., recall, social desirability and selection biases, and confounding) threatened its validity.44
Breastfeeding provides a wide array of health benefits for both baby and mother, while simultaneously enhancing the bond between mom and her baby. Mothers who breastfeed have a lower risk of ovarian and pre-menopausal breast cancer. Their babies see a boost in cognitive development, as well as lowering their chances of being obese as adults, unlike formula fed babies. Consequently, a lower risk of obesity correlates to a lower incident of a wide array of comorbidities such as
Studies demonstrate that breastfeeding provides the best start in life for a newborn with advantages to both mothers and infants; however; despite this knowledge, the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP), HealthyPeople.gov (n.d.) reports of the 79.2% of women who start out breastfeeding their newborn in the hospital, only 18.8% are exclusively breastfeeding by six months. The purpose of this paper is to identify barriers for breastfeeding mothers, analyze the process and criteria used for an evidence-based nursing practice using telehealth technology to increase the proportion of infants who are breastfed, explain the importance of effective scholarship and evidence-based information, and discuss implementation of telehealth
With the arrival of a newborn, parents are immediately faced with myriad of decisions. Should they use cloth or store-bought diapers, co-sleeping or a crib, and what parent gets what shift during the night are just a few. However, one of the most important and more personal choices is between a formula based diet or breastfeeding for their baby to receive his or her required nourishment. It has been proven time and time again that the benefits of breast milk over formula are numerous: they include health, emotional, mental, and financial benefits with the convenience of non-preparation. Breastfeeding is not only the most natural way to provide nutrition for a baby it’s also the most complete way. These benefits do not only benefit the baby, but they benefit the mother as well.
Only 38% worldwide infants are exclusively breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is econcouraged to exceed the two years of infant age. There are several factors that reduced breastfeeding. One of these factors is mixed feeding, hospital practiese that feed infants formula, lack of supports, lack ogf proper knoledege among mthres. The target is to increase exclusive breastfeeding for 50% globally. Some of actions that promote breastfeeding is having sustainable baby friendly with providing consultation to mother and training. Provide community and family support. Paying six months full for moms to help them contenue breastfeeding. Also, providing places for moms at work to sore her milk and onsite
All mammalian mothers feed their children breast milk directly from breast to mouth; this act is known as breastfeeding. The World Health Organization and UNICEF recommends early initiation of breastfeeding, within an hour of birth, and exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life (Global strategy for infant and young child feeding, WHO 2013). Exclusive breastfeeding is defined as the infant receiving only breast milk without the addition of solid foods or other liquids. The benefits of exclusive breastfeeding are numerous, with the most highly recognized being protection against gastrointestinal infections, which have been shown to be a cause of mortality in infants. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) 2013 Breastfeeding Report Card, approximately 77% of American children are breastfed at all, 40% are exclusively breastfed at three months old, and 16% by six months. Approximately 50% of mothers continue to breastfeed their children past six months, although the child’s sustenance is supplemented with solid foods and other liquids. Lack of breastfeeding has been linked to malnourishment, which is associated with 45% of child deaths globally (WHO 2013). In 2012, close to 100 million children under the age of five were below the healthy weight-to-height ratio as a consequence of malnutrition due to inadequate feeding and multiple infections. Research has shown that the act of breastfeeding not only provides benefits for the child, but also mothers. According to the federal agency on women’s health, breastfeeding has been associated with reduced risk of breast and ovarian cancers, and other women’s health problems. Encouraging women to breastfeed exclusively for the first six months of thei...
Breastfeeding is a natural way of providing food for infants. It is an important part of motherhood, and it is the first major decision that is made when it comes to feeding a child. Breastfeeding is an issue of gender because when a woman is seen breastfeeding, in public or not, she is usually shamed and accused of indecent exposure. This is because our society has been shaped to see breast only as sexual objects as well as an insufficient amount of educating on breastfeeding being done. We could start to put an end to this issue by becoming informed on the importance of breastfeeding and realizing that the purpose of breast is to provide nutrients to babies. In the research I did on this issue, I found studies and information that have shown the advantages breastfeeding has when it comes to infants, mothers, and society.