Breast Cancer- Awareness in Females

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Stages and Di¬¬¬agnosis Breast cancer, like all other cancers, is staged according to guidelines set by the American Cancer Society (n.d.). In the TMN staging system, there are three parameters set to establish the stages of breast cancer (Office of Women’s Health n.d). One parameter is the T, or tumor; this refers to the size of the tumor and the spreading of the tumor to the skin or chest wall. The T is judged on a scale of one to four (e.g. T1, T2, T3, T4). The second parameter is the N, or lymph nodes; N refers to if the cancer has spread to any lymph nodes, and if so how many. The N is judged one to three (e.g. N1, N2, N3). The third parameter is the M, or metastasis; it refers to if the cancer has reached any distant organs. M is measured from zero to one, basically either it has metastasized or it has not (e.g. M0, M1). Another staging system combines tumor, lymph nodes, and metastasis together, and based on the answer given the cancer is placed in five stages; stage 0, stage I, stage II, stage III, and stage IV (Mandal 2013; American Cancer Society n.d.; Office of Womens Health n.d.). Stage 0 contains breast cancers that are usually noninvasive. Stage I is divided into two sections IA and IB; cancers classified here are either smaller than two centimeters or have small clusters of cancerous cell in lymph nodes, no bigger than two tenths of a millimeter. Stage II is divided into two sections as well, IIA and IIB. The breast cancers classified in this section have tumors between two and five centimeters, found between one to three axillary or lymph nodes, or the tumor is larger than five centimeters but has not spread to any nodes. Stage III is a subdivided into three sections, each with increasing severity: IIIA, IIIB, a... ... middle of paper ... ... (Fallowfield, Clark 1991). The book Breast Cancer Wars: Hope, Fear, and the Pursuit of a Cure in Twentieth-century America, gives a detailed description of the history associated with radical mastectomies or the removal of one or both breast, as well as the chest tissue and surrounding lymph nodes. Dr. William Halstead, a John’s Hopkins surgeon popularized the procedure. It was said, “In 1968, 70% of women with breast cancer received the treatment. (Lerner 2001)” According to Dr, Ananya Mandal (2013), breast cancer has been around for a long time. This article gives a description of breast cancer facts and statistics, the author also identifies that breast cancer is not just a recent occurrence and it has been going on since ancient times. A brief synopsis was also given, establishing a trend all the way from Egyptian times to present day history. (Suchy n.d)

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