The most effective way to prevent of mold growth and reduce or detoxification mycotoxin without the use of chemicals and maintain the nutritional value of the food choice is the use of microorganisms. These organisms produce several the antagonist combination that possible control of other pathogenic and spoilage micro florae have undesirable (4). Among the various, microorganisms can be the lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which have antimicrobial activity are mentioned (3,5). The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a b... ... middle of paper ... ...oxin. If aflatoxin is bound noncovalently and extracellularly, it may be released by the continual washing of the bacterial surface in the gastrointestinal tract if the binding is insufficiently strong.
Botulism is a rare but very serious paralytic illness that is caused by the botulinum toxin that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. C. botulinum is a gram positive, anaerobic, spore forming bacterium that is naturally occurring in soil. Botulism dates back to the eighteenth century when the first food borne botulism was documented. During this time many people were doing home fermented sausages and this was thought to be the cause of botulism. This is how the toxin got its name since “Botulism” in Latin comes from “botulus” which means sausage.
Additional Toxins Also contributing to the virulence of the bacteria are the exotoxins including invasive adenylate cyclase, tracheal cytotoxin, and lethal toxin. Invasive adenylate cyclase reduces local phagocytic activity as well as acting as a hemolysin. Tracheal toxin affects the ciliated respiratory epithelium by inhibiting the ciliary beating. This kills the cells and causes them to be eliminated from the mucosa. Tracheal toxin also stimulates the release of IL-1, which causes fever.
In the present study, the isolated bacteria were checked for their antibiotic susceptibility and pattern of resistance to antibiotics such as: Amp, Cip, Te, CRO, Van, Amc, Rd, E, Pen, Oxc and Gen. The Shinta river has become the ultimate dumping ground of Dashen brewery, municipal, and agricultural sewage and Keha is also a reservoir of Gondar university teaching hospital, municipal and agricultural sewage thus posing significant threat to ecological balance as well as to public health. Hospital, municipal and agricultural ... ... middle of paper ... ... 2009 and this prevalence was lower than the report of Lin and Biyela (2005), which showed that 58% of multi drug-resistant isolates with aquatic environments contained class 1 integron. Class 1 integron was found in 5 (31.3%) of 16 P. aeruginosa isolates from Keha and Shinta river water. This prevalence was in line with Henriques et al., 2006, who identified class 1 integron in 29.6% of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from estuarine waters.
Azithromycin is an antibiotic that targets gram-positive bacteria, and it inhibits growth by binding to the 50s ribosomal RNA to prevent protein synthesis. Through the Kirby-Bauer test, it was found that the gram-negative enteric bacteria were susceptible to Azithromycin. Azithromycin is a hydrophobic antibiotic, which means that the outer membrane of the enteric bacteria is capable of resisting the detrimental affects of Azithromycin (Vaara, 1993). The susceptibility of our isolate A bacteria may be due to a mutation that affects the outer membrane of the gram-negative bacteria; consequently, the antibiotic is able to penetrate the bacteria and bind to the ribosome. Mutant strains of the enteric bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium that are unable to synthesize lipid A and lipopolysaccharide, components of the outer membrane, were found to be more susceptible to Azithromycin since the antibiotic was able to diffuse through the outer membrane (Vaara, 1993).
Identification and Prevention of What Makes Life “Nasty, Brutish, and Short” Plague is caused by the bacterium bacillus Yersinia pestis, and is carried by rodents, fleas, and mammals. Plague takes three forms: bubonic, pneumonic, and septicemic. Bubonic plague affects the lymph glands, while the pneumonic and septicemic forms affect the lungs and the blood. Today, plague can be prevented by antibiotics and strict public health measures. Three methods of controlling carriers involve sanitizing the environment, educating the public on how to prevent exposure, and using prophylactic antibiotics.
When it first appeared, it was found to be deadly in all the areas it affected. Today, with the advancements in medicine it is not deadly if treated with antibiotics. Typhoid fever is spread through food and water contaminated by people with typhoid shedding S. typhi. It is caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi, which infects the blood and the intestines. Typhoid fever is commonly found in developing countries located in Asia, Africa and South America.
Natural or chemical substances are added to food to inhibit spoilage; also, to protect food from decay or fermentation. Three things that will prevent the growth or slow down the growth of these spoilers: heat, cold and the use of acidity in the product. The point of preserving is to slow down the activity of disease- causing bacteria and to kill the bacteria all together. Most of the time preserving kills something called enzymes which is naturally found in the food. Enzymes makes the food spoil or discolor faster.
Aminoglycosides are bactericidal agents used to treat gram negative infections. Aminoglycosides do not absorb well when given orally so they must be given intavenously to get its systemic effect. Some Aminoglycosides include brand name Garamycin, generic name gentamicin. Garamycin can treat infections of the eyes and ears caused by bacteria, as well as urinary tract infections. Another Aminoglycoside is brand name Nebcin, generic name tobramycin.
However, gram negative sepsis bacteria initiate the more severe cases. Two types of bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are examples of these agents. E. coli are rod-shaped bacteria, found in normal flora located in the gastrointestinal tract. They are able to cause a severe infection due to their ability to release toxins. Contrarily, P. aeruginosa are rod-shaped opportunistic bacteria found in soil and water.