Botulism or Sausage Poisoning

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1. Introduction

Botulism or sausage poisoning, name “botulism” similar “botulus” in Latin word meaning sausage was first recognized in late 1700s after occurs the disease in southern Germany. Around 1820s, German neurologist Justinus Kerner studied and explained that the disease relates to ingestion of spoiled sausage. Kerner isolated the substance from sausage and described that the sausage had poisonous substance which was responsed for clinical signs connected with botulism but the deadly poison was still unknown. In 1895, have been discovered that the offending etiological agent in spoiled was a bacterium which is Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum) by Emile Van Ermengem and published in 1897 (Julie and Dorothy, 2007). The bacterium Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus and caused by action of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNTs). Common property of production of spores by C. botulinumn which have high resistance to physical and chemical agents. The resistant spores can spread around the world in the biosphere and spread in soil, dust, water, vapors, both fresh and salt-water mud as well as sewage and finally can contaminate in several foods. Under optimal nutritional and physical condition for C. botulinumn (anaerobiosis, low acid which pH more than 4.5, low concentration of salt and sugar, nutrient sufficientcy) form of vegetative cell occurring and finally become BoNTs from the spores. At temperature 100°C, these organisms are viable of surviving for up 2 hours. C. botulinumn has a very efficient neurotoxin, a mouse is killed by a little 10 picograms of neurotoxin and 1 nanogram per kilogram of body mass is toxic dose in humans. At temperature 85°C, these neurotoxins is heat labiled and is rapidly inactiva...

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...imens. One of treatment is botulism antitoxin whose effects are specific to early stage of disease if detects in late stage, this antitoxin is not good effects on disease. Using nutritional support and rehab to improve neurocognitive function are used to relieve as well. In some case, part of motor paralysis can use guanidine hydrochloride (50 mg/kg) to reverse (Teguh et al., 2007).

6. Personal perspective and commentary

Tubolism is important disease because causes from environment involving water, soil, air and animal debris contaminated with C. botulinum. This bacteria can generate BoNTs to inhibit releasing of acethylcholine and causes flaccid paralysis. The best and easiest way to protect the body is to eat cooked food, drink warm water to kill bacteria before consumption and wear fact mask against bacteria when working in potentially contaminated.
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