Blood pressure is controlled by three things: heart rate, stroke volume and peripheral resistance. Generally, when heart rate increases, blood pressure rises, and vice versa. A number of things affect heart rate, such as body's temperature, nervous system, hormones, medications, and diseases, etc. The amount of blood pumped out of a ventricle with each heartbeat is called stroke volume. When you're resting, stroke volume is about the same as the amount of blood that veins carry back to the heart.
The first number, known as systolic blood pressure, is a measurement of the force your blood exerts on blood vessel walls as your heart pumps. The second number, known as diastolic blood pressure, is a measurement of the force that blood exerts on blood vessel walls when the heart is at rest between beats. What is high blood pressure? High blood pressure means the heart is pumping harder to move blood through the body. This can weaken blood vessels and damage major organs, such as the brain.
The kidneys release an enzyme called renin which is stimulated by low blood pressure or certain nerve impulses. When the overall volume in the blood is increased, more blood is pumped through arteries which increases the pressure deployed on the artery walls. Studies also suggest that some people with hypertension may inherit abnormalities of the sympathetic nervous system. There is also a cause like Secondary Hypertension which is caused by other factor such as medications that increases blood pressure. Conditions like Diabetes, Kidney disease, Endocrine disorders and more can also make high blood pressure more difficult to control.
This increase in pulmonary pressure leads to pulmonary edema. In severe pulmonary edema, capillary fluid moves into the alveoli, which impairs the respiratory passages for adequate gas
What is blood pressure? Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood in the circulatory system, often measured for diagnosis since it is closely related to the force and rate of the heartbeat and the diameter and elasticity of the arterial Walls. High blood pressure is a condition in which the force
The Circulatory System The circulatory system can be greatly affected by the type and amount of training a person does and therefore has to be considered very closely compared to other body systems. The main functions of the circulatory system are: · Transport- carrying blood, water, oxygen and nutrients throughout the body, and transport the removal of waste. · Body temperature control-the blood absorbs the body heat then carries it to the lungs and to the skin, where it is then released. · Protection- it helps to fight disease, e.g. antibodies, which fight infection, are carried in the blood and the clotting of seals cuts and wounds.
Treatment – There are many different ways to treat a heart attack. In many cases, the patient is suffering extreme pain and an angioplasty will be performed to help unblock the arteries of the heart. A catheter will be used and inserted into the heart to remove the blocked and regain blood flow back to the heart. Veins and arteries may need to be rerouted in order for the blood to flow properly and in this case, the doctor will perform a coronary artery bypass graft. Many different medications can also be used to treat a heart attack.
Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a disease by which the force of the arteries raises the blood pressure in the body. The continuous elevation of the high blood pressure will ultimately lead to major health issues. Boedthjer & Aalkjaer (2013) states, "frequently described causes for hypertension involve changes in the kidneys, the resistance vasculature, and the autonomic nervous system" (p.1). Blood pressure is assessed by the strength of blood that depresses against the vessel walls. Consequently, an increase in an individual 's blood pressure will tighten the arteries and cause the heart to pump more blood.
Sometimes the IV is given to hydrate a severely dehydrated body, in which case all the cells are impacted by the infusion. IV administration is faster than any other method of administration because it flows directly into the blood stream, so it is used when rapid action of the drug is necessary. The needle is usually inserted into in a vein close to the elbow, the wrist, or placed on the back of the hand. IV infusion works effectively because gravity pushes the fluid down through the IV tubing into the patient's vein. The higher the bag is hung, the greater the gravitational pressure on the IV fluid to flow downward through the tubing.
The Cardiac Cycle The cardiac cycle is the sequence of events that occur when the heart beats. There are two phases of this cycle: * Diastole - Ventricles are relaxed. * Systole - Ventricles contract. During the diastole phase the atria and ventricles are relaxed and the atrioventricular valves are open. De-oxygenated blood from the superior and inferior vena cava flows into the right atrium.