2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Origin and Distribution Tannia was originated in tropical America, but currently grown widely as a subsistence food crop in Asia, Africa and Polynesia (Bown, 2000). From five crops which are under sub family aroid the only tannia originated from Central & South America others originated from South-east Asia (Lebot, 2009). When the Europeans arrived, it was further known to have been grown from Southern Mexico to Bolivia in the Latin America. Only during the 19th century, it spread widely throughout the tropical world.
It is one species, Hevea brasiliensis, which makes up 99% of the world's natural rubber production. In 1989 that production was worth an estimated 4 billion dollars. Hevea brasiliensis (the para rubber tree) is a South American native that can grow to a height of 150 feet. The trees have a smooth bark and palmately compound leaves. They are monoecious and have small inconspicuous flowers.
There is a described variety of P. edulis in Australia that has a natural range of either purple or yellow fruits, leaving the chance that the yellow variety may have been a mutation from a variety such as that found in Australia (3). Common properties of the Passiflora sp. are an ovoid to nearly round shape. The rind is a tough waxy structure ranging from 1/8 to 1/4 of an inch thick. Inside the rind is a cavity with double-walled sacs, containing an orange-colored, pulpy juice as well as up to 250 very small dark brown to black edible seeds.
Although not limited to the Euphorbiaceae, latex production is one of its distinguishing characteristics. (7) The plants of the Euphorbiaceae family are mostly monoecious herbs, shrubs, and trees, sometimes succulent and cactus-like, and comprise one of the largest families of plants with about 300 genera and 7,500 species that are further characterized by the frequent occurrence of milky sap. (6) The flowering and pollination of the Hevea brasiliensis tree are also distinguishing characteristics of this plant.
The Andes are vertically crossing the entire southern continent and can be found in Venezuela and are stretched all the way to the southernness point of Chile. In the Argentina is the home of the highest point of the Andes mountain called the Aconcagua range. Since Argentina is so large and spreading vertically, it has many different types of climates and weather patterns. Since the country is located in the southern hemisphere, he seasons are opposite to what we have here in the United Stat... ... middle of paper ... ...eir leadership or lack of leadership. Argentina is knows for its agriculture, and growing of beef, and sheep.
Often regarded as a common weed (Dept. of Agriculture 1955), many different species of Chenopodium can be found growing wild today throughout North and South America. The most significant of these in terms of cultivar progeny and economic utilization are the species Chenopodium berlandieri from Mexico and the Southwestern United States, and Chenopodium bushianum of the Eastern United States. Common names often applied to members of this genus Include goosefoot, lamb's quarter, and occasionally pigweed. Reaching a height of 3-4 feet (the Andean cultivar C. quinoa reaches 6 feet) these annual species propagate via seeds produced between August and November.
Among these germs were those that brought smallpox, measles, chickenpox, influenza, malaria, and yellow fever. The Columbian exchange of crops affected both the Old World and the New. Amerindian crops that have crossed oceans for example, maize to China and the white potato to Ireland has been incentive to population growth in the Old World. The latter’s crops and livestock have had much the same outcome in the Americas. The full story of the trade is very long, so for the hope of shortness and sharpness let us focus on a certain area, the east... ... middle of paper ... ...ian Exchange has been a crucial factor in that demographic explosion.
Recurved spines that achieve to 7 mm long are located on the undersides of the petioles, petioules and stems. Source : PlantSystematic.org Figure 1: The fruits of Mimosa pigra. The inflorescences, containing up to 100 flowers are spherical which are about 1 cm across and pink violence. The species is rare because it consists of androdioecious with both male and hermaphrodite
1.1 About Hevea brasiliensis Hevea brasiliensis Müell.Arg., is the scientific name of the rubber tree or Para rubber tree. This species falls under the family of Euphorbiaceae. The size of this tropical tree ranges from medium to large. It may grow up to 40 m or taller in the wild, but the trees planted commercially generally reach heights of around 17 m. The leaves are around 60 cm long, thick and leathery. They are also compound, with 3 elliptic leaflets with entire margins and prominent secondary veins.
The Andes extends form Tierra del Fuego, Chile in the south all the way to northeastern Venezuela. The South American region is made up of wide range of climates including: Arid, highland, humid tropical, and semiarid. The eastern part of the region contains both highland regions and large river basins like the Amazon, Paraná and Orinoco. Most of the continent is located in the tropics. The South American Region also contains the world’s largest rainforest, The Amazon.