"The Renaissance was a rebirth that led to new ways of thinking in the sciences, philosophy, and architecture, as well as painting and sculpture" (Spence 6). This period of European history, beginning in the fourteenth-century, saw a renewed interest in the arts. It has been characterized by many as the birth of modern humanity and consciousness after a long period of decay, the Middle Ages. Until the revolutionary thinkers of the Renaissance, much of Europe was dormant and stagnant, immersed in the "Dark Ages" where the Christian God was viewed as a punishing and distant force. During the Middle Ages, Christian historians broke history into three divisions: the creation, the incarnation of Jesus Christ and the anticipated last judgement.
Stronger political relationships with the Continent were also developed, increasing England's exposure to Renaissance culture. Humanism became the most important force in English literary and intellectual life, both in its narrow sense—the study and imitation of the Latin classics—and in its broad sense—the affirmation of the secular, in addition to the otherworldly, concerns of people. These forces produced during the reign (1558–1603) of Elizabeth I one of the most fruitful eras in literary history. The energy of England's writers matched that of its mariners and merchants. Accounts by men such as Richard Hakluyt, Samuel Purchas, and Sir Walter Raleigh were eagerly read.
It stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, and full development of one’s capabilities and talents. During the Middle Ages individualism was highly abandoned. Almost any idea deviating from the status quo, largely determined by the Roman Catholic Church, was condemned as heresy. Any body who was accused of proposing individualism will be be excommunicated or killed, However, with the decline of the Middle Ages, the conditions arose for the birth of individualism—the development of which can be traced through the Renaissance During the renaissance, there was a renewed interest in the arts, and the traditional views of society came into question. People began to explore the power of the human mind.
During the Middle Ages in Europe things remained stagnant, and everyday life was centered around Christianity and God. Starting with the Renaissance period at the end of the fourteenth century, the focus shifted and was more secularized. The focus was more on the achievements of man and enjoying ones time on earth rather than concentrating solely on achieving salvation in the afterlife. This rebirth of antiquity and new focus on individual achievement and creativity became known as humanism, and resulted in many wonderful cultural advancements in art,... ... middle of paper ... ...to achieve the end goal you desire. The ends justifies the means.
During his reign, Charles I constantly oppressed ideas that went against the Church of England due to his religious ideals and belief that he could impose religious conformity across all of his lands. Between 1650 and 1659, after Charles’ beheading, both the supporters of Cromwell and the defeated monarchists turned to science and technology for its potential economic and social benefits. The commonwealth made it a priority to pay off their debts from the civil war in any way... ... middle of paper ... ...nts would not have happened if Charles I had not been eradicated from the throne of England. Works Cited Barone, Michael. Our First Revolution.
Henry VII, John Milton, Elizabeth I, James I of England, James VI of Scotland, William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, Ben Jonson, John Donne, Sir Philip Sidney, and Edmund Spenser were important people during the Renaissance period. A single most important influence on the English Renaissance was the break of Rome by Henry VII and establishment of the Protestant Church of England. The English translation of the Bible was not printed until the 1530’s. The term “Renaissance humanism” recognized the potential in humanity and celebrated human achievement. The Reformation in Europe was a major protest against the Catholic Church and the political debates that inspired it (Lee-Browne 4-6, 19).
The Renaissance is known for the paintings, sculptures and most decorative art from the European period history. It was known as the “rebirth” and mostly is the period in the European civilization mostly following the middle ages. The Renaissance was the period that had discovery and explorations of the new continents that substituted the Copernican for the Ptolemaic system of the astronomy (The Beginning Progress of the Renaissance R. A. Guisepi). The feudal system had declined the growth of the commerce, but mostly the inventions or the applications for the powerful innovations for the paper printing. The art of Classical had transformed its traditions by having the absorptions of the occurring developments in the Northern part of Europe of art by using a contemporary scientific knowledge that helped them with their art.
The development of perspective also was part of a trend towards realism in the arts. Another important aspect of the Renaissance was the Protestant Reformation in the 16th-century in which religious, political, intellectual and cultural outbreaks shattered Catholic Europe, setting the structures and ideas that would define the modern era. All of these little innovations that came together in a short timespan had set the world’s society, politics, arts and many more characteristics for centuries to come.
Playwrights ,such as William Shakespeare, were enthusiastic about this embrace of the arts and were encouraged to depict characteristics of Elizabethan society. Consequently, influences from the main cultural center encouraged and shaped plays such as Richard III. Historical influences are evident through Shakespeare’s plot, character of Richard III and the challenging of gender stereotypes, which result in the glorification of the Tudor dynasty. Firstly, Niccolo Machiavelli ‘s influences on England during the Elizabethan Era transmit in the plot of the play. Machiavelli published Il Principe and established guidelines on how a prince could get and secure power (“The Influence of Machiavelli on Shakespeare”).
One such event was the death of Christ. While the artists in Florence were starting to practice the potential maximization of the individual, very different things were happening up in Flanders. The region, fresh out of the dark ages, was very centered on religion. Thomas a Kempis taught in his Imitatio Christi that the individual should devote their lives to living a more Christian life and should rid themselves of all secular things. People in this region were also interested in the philosophies of Aristotle and nominalism rather than in Plato as were the people of Florence, who would again search for the perfect ideal during the renaissance.