There are several methods in which recombinant DNA is made: transformation, phage introduction, and non-bacterial transformation. The first step of transformation is to select a piece of DNA to be inserted into a vector. The second step is to cut the selected piece of DNA with a restriction enzyme and then ligate the DNA insert into the vector with DNA Ligase. The insert contains a selectable marker which allows for identification of recombinant molecules. This marker is often used so a host cell without a vector dies when exposed to a certain antibiotic, and the host with the vector will live because it has now become resistant. The most common example is a possible host cell of E. Coli. The selectable markers can be for antibiotic resistance, or any other characteristic which can distinguish transformed hosts from untransformed hosts. Non-bacterial transformation is another process very similar to transformation, except that it is non-bacterial and does not use bacteria such as E. Coli for the host. In this process, DNA is injected directly into the nucleus of the cell being transformed. The host cells are then bombarded with high velocity microprojectiles, such as particles of gold or tungsten that have been coated with DNA. Recombinant DNA works when the host cell expresses protein from the recombinant genes. Protein expression is solely expressed if there are expression factors that help the newly injected DNA. Problems may occur if the gene contains introns or contains signals which act as terminators to a bacterial host. This would result in premature termination for the cell, and therefore discontinue the protein processing. Recombinant DNA is so important to the future and has been gaining momentum especially in th... ... middle of paper ... ... () The drug that is being tested is called Diferuloylmethane with 500mg of curcumin. The process of this study’s phase 1 clinical trial was a study done over several months. Curcumin was taken once in the morning with an empty stomach. If there was no toxicity, curcumin was taken for three months. The dosage levels were 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 which correlated to 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000, and 12000 mg/day, respectively. Patients would receive regular follow up appointments which included routine physical examination, weekly hemogram, and biweekly blood electrolytes study. Measurement or evaluation of the indicator lesions was done at least every 4 weeks. Tissue samples would be taken before and after the completion of the 3-month treatment. One of the two patients left developed frank malignancies during the treatment period and thus discontinued the use of curcumin.