Biology Essay Drugs in Sport

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Drug Use in Professional Sport in Australia Introduction Drugs in society have always been a major problem, but lately there has been a significant spike in the amount of drug cheats in sport. Over the past years doctors and scientists have been searching for the best method which they are able to test sportsmen as to whether or not they are using performance enhancing drugs. These are the three main methods they found: Gas Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry and Immuno-Assays. These three methods are able to detect whether or not sportsmen are using stimulants, steroid hormones, narcotics, peptide hormones, beta2 agonists and diuretics. Stimulants Stimulants are drugs which are commonly known as the ‘party drug’. This is because this specific reference of drug is used to maximise the users’ energy by increasing the activity of the central nervous system and then speeding up the messages which goes between the brain and the body. The reason as to why sportsmen take stimulants is because this specific drug type such as Amphetamines , Ephedrine , Caffeine, Nicotine, Methamphetamines , Cocaine and Crack Cocaine increases blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate constricts the blood vessels and even raises blood sugar level. It also gives the users a higher level of alertness and makes the user energetic and euphoric. Steroid Hormones Steroid Hormones are divided into five different classifications, Androgens, Estrogens, Progestins, Mineralocorticoids and Glucocorticoids. Out of these five classes the main performance enhancing drug is found in the Androgens. In the Androgens group is anabolic steroids which are most commonly found in drug cheats. Anabolic steroids are a drug which can change the size of muscles in both strength a... ... middle of paper ... ...- Paranoia (a mental condition characterized by delusions of persecution, jealousy or exaggerated self-importance) - Mood swings - Deep depression - Severe acne - High blood cholesterol levels - High blood pressure - Injuries to tendons - Fluid retention - Trembling and muscle tremors - Stunted bone growth in adolescents Main side effects on men and women: Men- testicle and penis shrinkage, reduced sperm count, impotence, prostate problems, breast development, baldness Women- loss of menstrual cycle, shrunken breasts, deepened voice, facial and body hair and abnormal growth of clitoris. Long term side effects/impacts of Stimulants - Impotence - High blood pressure - Heart failure - Chronic sleep problems - Extreme mood swings - Compulsive repetition of actions - Paranoia - Anxiety - Depression - Irritability - suspiciousness - Weight loss - Panic attacks/seizures
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