Somatic cell manipulation is simply injecting new genes into somatic cells in order to cure a disease such as hemophilia. Germline manipulation is altering the genes in sex cells that are passed onto offspring, so that the offspring will posses certain specific characteristics. From the descriptions of these few processes, it can be seen why genetic engineering has become such a controversial issue. Genetic engineering deals with the very intricate, orderly, processes of human life. Genetics is so complex that it is extremely risky to be getting too far into the engineering without knowing the exact results of the actions.
When genes from humans turn back into bacteria the bacteria acts as a factory. They produce chemicals of important to humans, such as insulin, which is often used to treat diabetes. A gene that does not work properly would be replaced with one that will work properly. A genetic code of an organism can contain many proteins that are characteristics of that particular organism. The code word are strung together in the DNA molecule to form genes, which specify the order of amino acids i... ... middle of paper ... ...eakthrough because with genetic engineering, we can alter DNA molecules.
DEFINITIONS “Genetic Engineering, or gene splicing is the scientific alteration of the structure of genetic material in a living organism. It involves the production and use of recombinant DNA and has been employed to create bacteria that synthesize insulin and other human proteins” (Source 1). Genetic engineering allows scientists to take the genes of one species and combine them with those of another. Which essentially means that they have the power to completely re-modify an existing creature or even create an entirely new species. This is obviously going to be one of the more controversial issues when it comes to gene splicing because in a way the scientists, through biotechnical means, are playing the role of God.
Gene splicing involves removing a fragment of DNA containing the specific DNA sequenc... ... middle of paper ... ...cientist will have to learn how to turn on specific genes when a protein of enzyme is low, and off to avoid too much to ensure the delicate chemical makeup of our bodies is not disrupted. (Blachford, 467) Although there are many risks of gene therapy, the benefits remain to enticing to ignore. Gene therapy poses many risks, but may prove the ideal solution for countless diseases. As seen throughout the past few decades, gene therapy can cure genetically inherited diseases by introducing therapeutic genes into the body. Critics may argue that there are moral and ethical problems associated with this novel technique, but for the most part scientists realize the importance this advancement will have.
In most gene therapy studies, a "normal" gene is inserted into the genome to replace an "abnormal," disease-causing gene. A carrier molecule called a vector must be used to deliver the therapeutic gene to the patient's target cells. Currently, the most common vector is a virus that has been genetically altered to carry normal human DNA. Viruses have evolved a way of encapsulating and delivering their genes to human cells in a pathogenic manner. Scientists have tried to take advantage of this capability and manipulate the virus genome to remove disease-causing genes and insert therapeutic genes.
By natural breeding genes are passed down to offspring by the parents however, with new technology scientists are able to identify an individual gene and insert it into another organism which will then carry the trait of that gene. This alters the DNA. The extraction of the gene is done by physical and chemical methods The process of moving a gene from one molecule to another molecule is called cloning. In the cloning process a fragment of DNA, containing a gene is cloned into a vector where it is grown in large quantities and manipulated in a variety of ways. The most common vectors are bacterial plasmids but viruses and self-replicating units in eukaryotic cells are also employed as vectors.
Molecular biologists have discovered many enzymes which change the structure of DNA in living organisms, which can intern change the organism. Scientists even started to build vectors which incorporated genes of their choosing and used the new vectors to insert these genes into the DNA of living organisms. The International Chiropractic Pediatric Association believes that there are many downfalls and moral impediments in the allowance of genetic cloning of humans including a diminished the sense of uniqueness of an individual, the fact that it is inherently unsafe, and it may cause faults in parent-child interaction. Reproductive cloning would weaken the sense of uniqueness of an individual. It would intrude upon deeply and widely held beliefs about human individuality and freedom, and could cause a devaluing of clones in contrast with non-clones.
The resultant recombinant DNA “construct” is usually designed to express the protein(s) that are encoded by the gene(s) included in the construct, when present in the genome of a transgenic animal. Because the genetic code for all organisms is made up of the same four nucleotide building blocks, this means that a gene makes the same protein whether it is made in an animal, a plant or a microbe. Genetic engineering also known as genetic modification, is a direct manipulation of a genome with the use of biotechnology. Genomes are able to removed by using a nuclease, an enzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bond between the nucleotide subunits of nucleic acids. New DNA may be inserted in the host genome by isolating and copying the genetic material that is desired by using molecular cloning methods.
They currently can prevent a genetic illness or disease in a fetus or give a stage four cancer patient a last chance at a long and healthy life. This treatment does come along with many risks and possible side effects. Advancements in these technologies may allow extremely wealthy parents to create “designer babies” which could result in a major issue; a social class caste system based on physical and character related traits, abilities, and talents. Gene therapy and genetic engineering have many more factors weighing on the negative side than the positive, which is why it should not be tolerated in the United States nor anywhere else.
Somatic manipulation seeks to change the genetic makeup of particular body in somatic cells that comprise the organs and tissues. Germline genetic manipulation changes the sex cells which can modify the health of a child”(Hayes, 2000). Many applications of human genetic technology are favorable and hold great potential for preventing diseases and alleviating suffering. Other applications open the door to a human future of robot like humans. My research of genetics promises to make designer children possible, either through selective breeding or actual modification of genes.