The therapies are continuously evolving since it was introduced by Freud to help in solving a variety of psychological disorders within people. Contemporary development in the Psychodynamic therapy Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung penned Psychology of Dementia Praecox in 1907 in which he discussed about the Freudian concept of psychodynamic thoughts, however he incorporated new analysis and fresh research alongside the Freudian literatures. In his discussion, he included new concepts like wholeness of psyche; individual is composed with ego, collective unconscious, archetypes which are composed of tension that comes from spontaneity, recognizing the spiritual side of the human psyche (Ballen, 1997). John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth studied imprinting and developed the attachment theory. He rejected ... ... middle of paper ... ...).
Through his work Flourens found the areas of the brain responsible higher mental functioning, sight and hearing of humans and the areas that control our coordination, heartbeat, respiration, and other important functions of the body. His contributions to the mind-body problem was to further dissect how the brain and to determine which exact areas of the brain affect the body. Gall: Gall was responsible for mapping the brain and he functions as well as he was able to confirm that the brain did have white and grey matter; nerve fibers connected to both sides of the brain and opposite sides of the spinal cord; fibers are connecting to both halves of the brain. Gall further contributed to the understanding of the mind-body problem by showing that it was possible to find specific brain functions in certain areas of the brain. Galvani: Galvani suggested that nerves were electrical and that if stimulated by electricity they would twitch.
 Peter Brooks and Alex Woloch, eds., Whose Freud? (New Haven: Yale University Press), 48.  Lesley Chamberlain, The Secret Artist (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2000), 78.  ibid, 79.  Peter Gay, ed., The Freud Reader (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1989), 569-570.
In this essay the author will throughout compare the biological and psychoanalytical key features and core assumptions in psychology and show in what ways they are similar for example both being deterministic in there key features and core assumptions also how they differ for example the way they treat individuals with the same disorder differently. The biological perspective core assumptions suggest our nervous system performs functions like our behaviour, experiences and movements (Carlson 2010). The biological approach tries to understand the relationship between an individual’s mind and body and also the influence of heredity on their behaviour (Glassman and Hadad 2013). However psychoanalytical approach created by Sigmund Freud (Goodwin 2005) core assumptions are less scientific as it focuses on more unobservable and less measureable aspects like the Id, ego and superego as well as the psychosexual theory of personality. The psychoanalytical approach attempts to understand individual’s behaviours by analysing how personality is shaped by past experiences and the working of the mind (Glassman and Hadad 2013).
Sigmund Freud was a pioneer within the field of psychology who developed multiple theories that introduced the world to the inner meanings of the human unconscious. He created the theory of psychoanalysis, which allowed him to enter the world of the unconscious mind. He also proposed that humans go through a transition of various psychosexual stages, each level containing a different drive and desire. These urges were governed by the three components of the mind: the id, the ego, and the superego. He also believed that humans create defense mechanisms in order to drive away anxiety, guilt, and depression.
The human experience involves five general perspectives on human behavior each of which emphasizes different factors. These are: The Neuroscience, which explores how human brain and physiology shape and control our behavior; Behavioral attributes, which explores the causes of behavior to a person’s environment and experiences, therefore focusing on observable behavior that can be measured objectively, rather than internal causes of behavior; Cognitive, focuses on how people think, comprehend , and know the world, and how our ways of thinking about the world influence our behavior; Humanistic perspective, this suggests that all individuals naturally strive to grow and develop, and control their lives and behavior . Psychodynamic, which purports behavior to be motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which we have little awareness and over which we have little control; and finally the Biological perspective. The premise behind the biological perspective in psychology is that all actions, feelings, and thoughts are associated with bodily events. " Biological psychologists examine how all of the electrical impulses , hormones, and chemicals flowing through the body can affect behavior and how changes to these bodily functions can change behavior.
Each of these biological aspects consisting of the comparative, physiological and the genetic systems explicates human behavior. This dissertation will focus on the brain, the nervous system, and the ways in which these physiological mechanisms interrelate. The neuron plays an important role in the occupation of the brain (Rollin Koscis). A neuron is... ... middle of paper ... ...ed.com/A-Ar/Acetylcholine.html#b>. Marshall Brain.
15. In Psychology in action (10th ed., p. 532). New York: Wiley. John's Hopkins University Press (1939). The American Imago: A psychoanalytic journal for the arts and sciences (55.4 ed., p. 459).
These perspectives are the biological, evolutionary, psychodynamic, behavioral, humanistic, cognitive, and the sociocultural perspective. Biological perspective The biological perspective looks at how the environment and physical causes influences behavior. In the biological perspective, neuroscience plays a crucial role in explaining how the brain and the nervous system influence behaviors. Neuroscientist describes how the brain process thoughts, emotions, feelings, and how the physical body is driven by these mental processes. This branch of psychology, engages in a variety of research such as the study of genetics, brain cells, and the function of the brain across a period of time.
Therefore, evolution selected organisms that possess optimal homeostatic internal and external conditions (Emerson, 1958). When an organism's body senses a chemical imbalance in certain neurological processes, it triggers several responses. For instance, when sensory stimulation is presented to a peripheral neuron a change in cell polarization occurs causing the cell to fire and send a signal to the brain. Once received in the brain, the signal is processed for its meaning. It is at this point of the cycle that psychologists diverge on their interpretation of the evoked responses attributed to emotion.