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Finally, the principle of justice is also applicable here. The Belmont Report addresses the principle of justice in terms of who ought to receive the benefits of research and bear its burdens. (Belmont Report, 1979). The benefit to society is always the focus of justice in medical research, not the benefit to the subject. It represents both aspects of utilitarianism, the benefit to society as a whole, as well as egalitarianism, the notion that equals ought to be treated equally. An injustice occurs when some burden is imposed unduly. It is important to insure that those who are already burdened are not overburdened and the group participating in medical research should receive the benefit of it. The selection of research subjects must be scrutinized in order to determine whether some classes (e.g., welfare patients or particular racial and ethnic minorities) are being systematically selected simply because of their easy availability, their compromised position, or their manipulability, rather than for reasons related to the problem being studied. The Belmont Report also addresses t...

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