Bible interpretation

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The major scientific discovery in the early 17th century provided evidence that the common belief of the interpretation of the Sacred Scripture had erred. The scientific discoveries also brought up the conflict between science and religion. One of the major conflicts on this issue was the debate on the explanation of the universe between Galilei Galileo and the Catholic Church. Galileo believed that the Sacred Scripture was compatible with the statement that the Earth was indeed a planet and revolved around the stationary Sun that stood at the center of the universe. While Galileo argued that the telescope had provided strong and authentic evidence for both interpreting the Sacred Scripture and explaining the nature and the universe, both theologians in the Church and outside the Church had different viewpoints on the Galileo’s affair. Galileo had both supporters and adversary in the Catholic Church. While Paolo Antonio Foscarini, one of the theologians in the Church, supported Galileo’s argument, most of the other theologians in the Church disagreed with Galileo’s opinion and believed that the common interpretation of the Sacred Scripture by the Holy Father was true and absolute. Among the theologians in Church, high-ranking cardinal, Robert Bellarmine, and Pope Urban VIII believed that Galileo’s opinion was going against the will of God because accepting the Church interpretation of the Sacred Scripture was simply a matter of faith and heliocentrism was totally against the faith of God. Even though Galileo and Foscarini tried so hard to logically persuade the Roman Catholic Church that science and religion were not conflicted or mutually exclusive to each other, Bellarmine, who had been an opponent of Galileo and Foscarini, and ...

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... falsity. For to say that the Bible contains falsity would surely be a heretical denial of the word of God” (133). Pope Urban VIII declared that heliocentrism was contradicted to the Sacred Scripture. Although Galileo provided reasons and arguments that indicated science and religion could coexist with mutual respect, Urban VIII believed that any kind of possibilities that may falsify the Sacred Scripture should not be allowed because the faith to God should not include obscurity and uncertainty.
The initial attempt to determine which interpretation of the Sacred Scripture held right eventually turned into a dispute between authority and innovators over disobedience. While both Galileo and Foscarini defended heliocentrism logically and conceptually, Bellarmine and Pope Urban VIII focused the issue on loyalty and obedience to God and the authority of the Church.
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