The fight for women’s rights began long before the Civil War, but the most prominent issue began after the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments joined the Constitution. The rights to all “citizens” of the United States identified all true “citizens” as men and therefore incited a revolution in civil rights for women (“The Fight for Women’s Suffrage”). The National Women’s Suffrage Convention of 1868
Whether it is the Ancient Greece, Han China, the Enlightened Europe, or today, women have unceasingly been oppressed and regarded as the second sex. Provided that they have interminably been denied the power that men have had, very few prominent female figures like Cleopatra, the Egyptian Queen, or Jeanne d'Arc, the French heroine, have made it to history books. Veritably, it was not until 1792 when Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Women addressed the issues of gender equality, that some started hearkening the seemingly endless mistreatment of women. New Zealand was the first country to grant women the right to vote in 1892. The United States did not endorse this until 1920 when the 19th Amendment was ratified, which states “The right of citizens of the United States votes shall not be denied or abridged… on account of sex.” This, however, was not the end to women’s plight. For the majority of the 20th century, America’s idea of a good woman was a good mother and a good wife. In the 1960s and 1970s, a movement that would later bring fundamental changes to the American society was spreading rapidly throughout the country: The Women’s Liberation Movement. With the increasing number of educated women, gender inequality received more attention than ever before. Hundreds of women came together to fight domestic violence, lack of political and economic development, and reproductive restrictions. One of these women was an ordinary girl from Ohio named Gloria Steinem who would later become a feminist icon in the United States. Steinem contributed to the Women’s Liberation Movement by writing about feminism and issues concerning women, co-founding Ms. magazine, giving influential speeches— leading he movement along with...
Minutes after her performance, celebrities started declaring themselves as feminist and what it meant. Beyoncé doing this led the conversation to a social movement that needed to occur. This leads girls of all ages to get involved in the discussion that is happening over women’s rights as a whole. Women of all ages listen to Beyoncé and for this she reaches an audience that most do not. Third -wave feminism focuses on reaching all groups of people that may other-wise be culturally divided. Lorber (2012: 305) says, “It emerged (third-wave feminism) in the 1990’s and it built on multiracial/multiethnic feminism, standpoint feminism, and postmodern feminism.” Beyoncé being a women of color she reaches a community that is otherwise ostracized for not only their sex, but also because of their color. Third -wave feminism focuses on these women. Lorber (2012:306) states, “…African American third-wave feminist want to be like them—strong, active, political, and confrontational.” After reading this section I knew that third-wave feminism was something that I was a part of because it teaches anyone to be resilient not just
As an ever growing topic of debate in modern society, understanding feminism is critical to modern social and political stances. Beyoncé Knowles, a celebrity pop star has been a figure surrounded by debate for those seeking to define modern feminism. By examining her feminism, a great deal can be learned about different stance on modern feminism. As bell hooks defines it in her book, Feminism is for Everybody, “Feminism is a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation, and oppression” (viii). Through this definition, hooks is clear that feminism can be embraced by anyone, male or female, black or white, rich or poor so long as they oppose sexism and its ramifications since opposing sexism does not mean being against men but rather supporting
In 1920 the 19th amendment was passed which allowed women the right to vote; this was a significant achievement for the women’s suffrage movement. Since that time women have gained substantial freedom and equality, but some today still argue that gender inequality is a relevant cultural topic that needs to be addressed. Conversely, some people believe that feminism is irrelevant in modern society, or they believe the myth that feminism is only poorly disguised misandry. Despite the opposition, many women and men continue to be advocates for feminism.
Feminism can be a theory, a social movement, or a political action that has been demonstrated in many different ways in history. There have been many different key factors that played a role in forming feminism. There are certain leaders or spokespersons’ of feminism, as well as a general sense for organizing change amongst women’s equality that helped to develop what we know, or conceive feminism to be. Feminism has been successfully communicated using several types of strategies, and advocates have framed their goals for feminism using those strategic advantages in their favor to help their cause or movement.
What do women face in today’s world? Because of virtually every society’s unjust female treatment since the beginning of time, women have been forced to endure struggles and have been held back by a male – dominant society. Society believes it holds the right to discriminate women in the workplace solely because of their gender. Society believes it hold the right to limit women’s ascension to higher authoritative roles traditionally held by men. What gives men the right to hold women as prizes, to do with what they please? Society’s definition of beauty is such a harsh, gross, disproportion to the extent that females, primarily younger girls, become so self-conscious that they despise the very image looking back at them in the mirror. Every day, people walk through the streets “unaware” of this battle, when in fact they just do not want to open their eyes to this harsh reality. Sexism is everywhere in society. Women are being sold for their bodies, their beauty, and their sexuality. From commercials on television, to billboards on the side of the road, to movies, to the very music on the radio, women are being exploited. But there is a movement that has been working through the hearts and minds of individuals all throughout society, young and old alike. This is the feminist movement.
Basic human rights issues need to be addressed; with a feminist’s perspective, the oppression of people based on class, race, gender, sexuality, nationality, and physical ability can be clearly examined and abolished. A feminist’s ideological tool, “Intersectionality”, can help us better understand systematically determined levels of oppression. Redlined real estate developments, discriminating businesses, and racist incarceration rates, need to be examined with an intersectional lens. Intersectionality, the concept behind the intersectional lens, is an elaborate equation of one's intersecting traits. These intersecting traits are as follows: class, race, gender, sexuality, nationality and physical ability. Monique Wittig addresses how intersectionality
Before this organization, movements did not think to study how race and sex and gender, and other marginalized identities, intersect to create a unique form and experience of oppression. This document, therefore, does not support fractionalized movements, like lesbian separatism or the exclusion of black women from roles of leadership in either the feminist or anti-racist movements. They see mainstream movements without an intersectional framework as exclusive and therefore unproductive. Because these women understand the hardships that come with single-issue movements, they include the perspective of queer women of color, who other social justice movements constantly overlook and undermine their issues. Additionally, the Collective focuses on their self-love and self-appreciation as women of color. Since there is such a strong force of oppression and dehumanization towards women of color, and black women, in particular, others, including black men, could see their expression of self-love as radical. Additionally, the fact that they “reject pedestals, queenhood, and walking ten paces behind. To be recognized as human, levelly human, is enough,” continues to challenge the dehumanization of black women, either by idolizing them or by shaming and devaluing them. This statement targets men who fetishize black women as “queens” but at the same time
Feminism is a word that is stock-full of implications, and has many misconceptions. Full Frontal Feminism by Jessica Valenti attempts to give a broad overview of what feminism is, and how you should feel about it (hint: it’s positively). The book is directed primarily towards the younger generation, and talks about a variety of issues relevant to the feminist movement today and in history. The weaknesses of the book include the casual writing, the assumptions Valenti makes, and the contradictory statements that are consistently made. The strengths include providing an entertaining, broad overview of feminism, and discussing ways to contribute to gender equality. Overall, the book is more likely to be a positive experience for high-schoolers that identify as women then college-aged individuals looking for a critical analysis of issues society faces in regards to gender inequality.
Whereas the women’s suffrage movements focused mainly on overturning legal obstacles to equality, the feminist movements successfully addressed a broad range of other feminist issues. The first dealt primarily with voting rights and the latter dealt with inequalities such as equal pay and reproductive rights. Both movements made vast gains to the social and legal status of women. One reached its goals while the other continues to fight for women’s rights.
On the night of December 13, 2013 Beyoncé, released her fifth self-titled album on ITunes. The album caught many people by surprise because Beyoncé did not set a date for the album, nor did she use any promotion; she did release a video on her Instagram asking her followers if they “were ready”. The buzz spread through social media like a wild fire. With no promotion or no warning, Beyoncé album took the world by storm and made it for her audience and critics to take in the album and it contents. Many people loved the album for not only its catchy songs, but also the growth and “looser” conservative Beyoncé. On the other hand many people did not feel that her album was growth, but a way to catch up to the overly sexual generation. Beyoncé has always been aware of her sexual side, pop side, and feminist side; this has been documented through her four previous albums. Yet, a lot of people have questioned if Beyoncé a feminist because of the content of her newest album. In order to answer that a person must ask him or her self; what is a feminist, why some people believe she is feminist, why others do not believe she feminist, and whether or not Beyoncé think she is a feminist.
Among the many subjects covered in this book are the three classes of oppression: gender, race and class in addition to the ways in which they intersect. As well as the importance of the movement being all-inclusive, advocating the idea that feminism is in fact for everybody. The author also touches upon education, parenting and violence. She begins her book with her key argument, stating that feminist theory and the movement are mainly led by high class white women who disregarded the circumstances of underprivileged non-white women.
For years men were considered superior to women causing them to be looked down upon. This movement, like so many others was primarily based on making the social, political, and economic status of women equal to the men (scholastic.com). The first gathering of women’s rights activists took place between July 19-20 1848 in Seneca Falls, NY. This meeting consisted of one hundred people, in which two-thirds were women. Here, one of the leaders, Elizabeth Cady Stanton drafted a Declaration of Sentiments, Grievances, and Resolutions, which had begun with the preamble of the Declaration of Independence (history.house.gov). For centuries, women were not equal to men. After some time, they believed that a change was needed. This led to this movement. After many years for fighting for their rights, they began to be equal with the opposite sex. It first began with entering the workforce, to being part of the United States Military, and finally the rights given in the Nineteenth Amendment. During this long process, many women dedicated time so that future generations may be treated equally.
A black woman won’t face sexism and then racism independently of each other, but a racialized sexism that can only be understood by addressing them together. Modern day feminists have taken this idea and applied it to all aspects of life that can cause a person to face adversity or privilege, including but not limited to gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, race, religion, and nationality. Looking at someone’s individual situation as something with different facets of privilege and oppression has helped feminists to approach the movement in the way to help all women. My own experiences have come from the intersections between my white and socioeconomic privileges and the oppressions that I face as a woman. These oppressions and privileges stem from the patriarchal ideologies of the social superstructure and show how intersectionality is faced at the personal