Betty Neuman System Model In Nursing Practice

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Theories are used in nursing practice for various reasons to describe, explain, predict and prescribe. Grand theories (or conceptual models), provide a framework model for clinical practice, education, administration, methodology, and discipline inquiry, however, they cannot be applied directly to practice. As an alternative, middle-range theories are the ones that are applied directly into nursing practice and they must be consistent with the adopted conceptual model. Betty Neuman System Model (NSM), a grand theory, provides a comprehensive guide to nursing research, practice, education and administration. More so, this system model has the probability of unifying health-related theories through intervention and patient reaction to stressors.…show more content…
The model involves a core/basic structure and energy resources that offer for basic survival. Surrounding the core are the lines of resistance that are triggered when a stressor invades the system. Outside of the lines of resistance is the normal line of defense, which is the systems usual level of wellness that protects from the negative impact of stressors. Finally, the flexible line of defense is the outer boundary and provides the initial response to stressors. Each of these levels includes the five client variables physiological, psychological, sociocultural, developmental, and spiritual. Also, there are three environments which include, internal, external, and created. In addition, the model includes the three levels of prevention which are primary, secondary, and tertiary (Whetsell et al,…show more content…
Prevention include, primary, secondary, and tertiary.
Primary prevention happens before the client reacts to a stressor. It includes health promotion and maintaining wellness. Secondary prevention happens after the client reacts to a stressor. It focuses on preventing damage to the basic structure by strengthening the internal lines of resistance and removing the stressor. Tertiary prevention happens after the client has undergone through the secondary prevention strategies. It gives support to the patient by adding more energy or lessening the energy in the client system so as to enable reconstitution (Nursing theories, 2012).

Neuman acknowledged ten propositions, which are essential within her model, to describe, define, and link the concepts in the NSM. The propositions include:
1. Even though each system is unique, each is still composite of common factors and characteristics.
2. Many known, unknown and universal environmental dynamics exist.
3. Each individual or system has a typical range of response to the environment, which is referred to as Normal line of

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