Adult Learning Theory: Andragogy The dispute of how adults learn is an ever developing subject matter since the 1920’s when adult learning became a professional field of practice (Merriam, S., 2001). Questions such as, do adults learn differently from children? Are adults able to learn quicker, independently, or in the same environment? These are just some examples of a multitude of questions that have been raised since scientists began investigating Adult Learning. I intend to clarify some of the misconceptions of adult learning through proven scientific research and writings of experts in the field.
Adults are much more goal orientated in their approach to their education as well understanding their... ... middle of paper ... ...Learners, Colorado Christian University ,retrieved from: http://www.ccu.edu/blogs/cags/2011/10/how-adults-learn-compared-to-younger-learners/. Rao,Hanmanth. (2009). Pedagogy- what does it mean, Teaching Expertise, retrieved from: http://www.teachingexpertise.com/articles/pedagogy-what-does-it-mean-2370 Smith, M. K. (2002) ‘Malcolm Knowles, informal adult education, self-direction and andragogy’, the encyclopedia of informal education, retrieved from:www.infed.org/thinkers/et-knowl.htm. Hussin, Supyan.
Andragogy popularised by Malcolm Knowles in the 1980’s is the concept that he described as the “the art and science of helping adults learn” (Knowles, 1980), he helped the theory of learning to focus on the learners experience, whilst failing to analyse the nature of that experience (Jarvis, 2010). Knowles theories differentiated between adult and child learning and explored the idea that andragogy was different to pedagogy in five main ways. The adult learner needs to be more responsible for the learning and that it should be self-directed. They also have a wealth of knowledge and life experience to draw on to inform their learning. A readiness to learn, a thirst for knowledge as they have made the choice to learn in their area.
This is based on the assumption that adults need to know why they need to learn something; adults need to learn experientially; adults need problem-based learning; and the topic must be of immediate value (Culatta, 2013). This paper will focus on how the redesigned traditional course could have been enhanced if it were focused on the process of learning rather than the content based on Knowles’ six andragogical assumptions of adult learning. Traditional Learning Context My personal experience in the traditional classroom environment started after high school where I attended a community college for two years. One of the courses I was required to take was a statistics course which I attended as a live lecture for two hours twice a week. The majority of the students who took the course were young American-Hispanic adults ranging in the 18 to 22 age group who lived in the local area seeking their associate’s degree, two adults where in the 40-50 age range, and there was a slightly higher female attendance to males.
In this context, it is shown that lesson must be integrated with other learning strands to assist in evoking students interest and in... ... middle of paper ... ...my understanding of planning for teaching and learning with the Humanities. Works Cited Banks, J.A. & McGee-Banks, C.A. (eds) (2009), Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives, 6th edn, John Wiley, New York. Godinho, S 2013, ‘Planning for practice: connecting to pedagogy, assessment and curriculum’, Teaching: making a difference 2013, John Wiley and Sons, Milton, Qld, pp.
This concept takes the responsibility from the teacher and places it with the student. This approach is in line with Merriam’s theory of Self-Directed Learning in The New Update on Adult Learning Theory. In this approach, self-directed learning is identified as a concept that believes that learning progress from childhood to adult hood. Students are self-directed and instructors are able to tailor their instructional methods to meet the needs of these students. This approach support the concept of distinguishing whose responsibility it is to learn.
The work of the teacher is to find ways or approaches that will motivate learners to construct their knowledge based on prior knowledge, experience and their view of the real world. This theory rests on the assumption that knowledge is constructed by learners as they attempt to make sense of their own experiences (Driscoll, 1994). The theory suggests that pupils, not the teacher, are the center and controller of learning. Instead of acquiring knowledge from the teacher, the pupil has multiple sources of information in the process of constructing knowledge (teacher, students, library, Internet, textbooks, etc.). From the perspective of constructivist theory, the use of technology in learning becomes more essential to fulfilling the demands of a constructivist approach.
Both Piaget’s and Vygotsky theories are admitted that teacher’s role is to facilitate and give guidance instead of giving the command to children itself. Questioning and answering method is being used and forms of teaching are given in both theory. The educational implications of Piaget’s theory are focusing on the concept of relevant education, like materials, curriculum, and instructions. According to Piaget’s theory in the classroom, students are given a simple practice skills to a complex technique. The educator is also recommended to provide wide range of experiences to develop student concept of learning.
Lastly, Csete and Gentry (1995) use the term "learner controlled instruction" instead of a student-centered approach. Learner controlled instruction can be termed as when the learner has some control in the type of instruction that is given. The control factors can range from "procedures" to "time restraints" to "evaluation". The point is that each student’s needs are different and in student-centered learning and learner controlled instruction the learner can decide how and what they want to learn, to function in the real world. Methods and Materials used in Student-Centered Learning Harmon and Hirumi (1... ... middle of paper ... ...linear fashion by using interactive, discovery methods.
So for learning to occur the student must have a meaningful experience and the teacher’s role is to create the environment which transforms data into knowledge. When the instruction takes on meaning in the eyes of the student the data will transform into knowledge. Worldview & Philosophy of Life “I can't go back to yesterday because I was a different person then.” ― Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland Many p... ... middle of paper ... ...pon two principles, knowing the student, and knowing myself. By knowing the student I can better understand the environment in which they developed and current environment in which they judge value and meaning. By knowing myself, I ensure that I am where I need to be mentally, emotionally and spiritually.