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Benefits Of DNA Sequencing: What Can The DNA Tell Us?

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DNA sequencing
Definition
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotide within a DNA molecules. It include any method or technology that order of the four bases – adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine in a strand of DNA.
Or “ The process of determining the order of bases in given DNA strand.
What can the DNA sequence tell us?
• Predict the sequence of amino acids of proteins encoded by the DNA
• Determines the composition of RNA molecules encoded by the DNA e.g., rRNA, tRNA
• Locate the position and determine the composition of introns in gene from eukaryotes
• Characterize the complete genetic make-up of an organism (Genome Sequencing)
There are main three methods for detecting DNA sequence
Use of Sequencing
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Human genome project is the biggest example of DNA sequencing. When the human genome was sequenced back in 2001, many issue rose but now after many year, we can see its impacts on medical and pharmaceutical research. Scientists are now able to identify the genes which are responsible for causing genetic diseases like Alzheimer's disease, Cystic fibrosis, myotonic dystrophy and many other diseases caused by the disability of genes to function properly. Many types of acquired diseases like cancers can also be detected by observing certain genes.
Use of Sequencing
DNA sequencing may be used to determine the sequence of individual genes, larger genetic regions (i.e. clusters of genes or operons), full chromosomes or entire genomes. Sequencing provides the order of individual nucleotides present in molecules of DNA or RNA isolated from animals, plants, bacteria, archaea, or virtually any other source of genetic information. This information is useful to various fields of biology and other sciences, medicine, forensics, and other areas of study.

Molecular
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This is a form of genetic testing, though some genetic tests may not involve DNA sequencing. In medical research, DNA sequencing can be used to detect the genes which are associated with some heredity or acquired diseases. Scientists use different techniques of genetic engineering like gene therapy to identify the defected genes and replace them with the healthy ones.
Forensics
DNA sequencing may be used along with DNA profiling methods for forensic identification and paternity testing. DNA sequencing has been applied in forensics science to identify particular individual because every individual has unique sequence of his/her DNA. It is particularly used to identify the criminals by finding some proof from the crime scene in the form of hair, nail, skin or blood samples. DNA sequencing is also used to determine the paternity of the child. Similarly, it also identifies the endangered and protected species.
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