A.Poulin Jr.. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1991. 182-184. - - - . "On Neal's Ashes". Contemporary American Poetry-5th Edition.
He suggests that tragedy is plot driven, and if the plot is set then there is no way around it. In Oedipus Rex by Sophocles, Oedipus is paying for the sins of his father King Laios. Laios was given horrible future by the Gods for angering them when he rapes another man. He was given a prediction that his son would murder him, and would marry his mother, Queen Jocaste. To prevent the prediction from happening Laios sent his shepherd to kill Oedipus, but gave him to a messenger from a different kingdom for another royal family to call their own.
Literature Reading Fiction, Poetry, and Drama (6th ed. pp. 1165-1166). New York City: McGraw - Hill Companies Inc. Poe, E. A. (2007).
The Language of Composition: Reading, Writing, Rhetoric. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford / St. Martins, 2008. 365-69. Print.
“Young Goodman Brown.” Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Ed. Emily Barrosse. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007.