By not accepting responsibility, there is no clear path for self-improvement or growth, which does not allow him to manage his existential anxiety in a positive way. Along with not admitting his mistakes, he isolates himself from society by not reaching out to anyone. This is shown through the fact that when he is in the phone booth he wants to call someone but “ended up not calling anyone” (Salinger 53). This shows his isolation from society because he does not have strong relationships with friends or family, which is needed to get to the path of self-compassion. Holden does not reach out to people because he is afraid of getting rejected.
He is felt to feel like he doesn’t fit in or belong in the society. Holden is considered different and alienated as this would be one of his defence mechanisms. Holden is then under the impression that his ways make him better than the other people around him and therefore he feels no need to socialise with the rest of the society. In all honesty Holden is overwhelmed by the presence of people as he never feels welcome in the society. He leads people to believe that he has a sense of superiority but what they don’t know is that this is one of his defence mechanisms to keep them away.
Holden can be seen as: a perpetual liar, a coward, pretty weak for his size, and plagued with passive inaction. These characteristics can spring from an incident in one’s life that the individual was never fully able to overcome. Difficult situations is a part of everyone’s life, but it is how we choose to overcome them that makes us different from each other. Although occasionally the difficult event is too devastating or too powerful to overcome, so one must try other means to cope with the event throughout life. It is this coping that puts serious strains on someone’s mental and emotional attributes long after the event happened.
Lennie is very strong and big but his mind is like a child's, so the men don't respect him as an equal. For example, George explains to Slim that he, "Used to play jokes on [Lennie] cause he was too dumb to take care of 'imself"(p. 40). Lennie does not take part in the activities the workers do in their spare time. Lennie does not go to town with the men. In Weed, Lennie gets in trouble because the people don't understand his problem.
In summary, Holden Caulfield is a troubled adolescent whose personality, improper feelings and habit of running from his problems prevent him from receiving sympathy. Since his personality includes being lazy and insincere, it is difficult to feel sympathy for him when he fails to try or tells lies. His improper feelings depress him over nothing or leave him lonely and isolated. His habit of running away from his problems make it difficult for him to receive sympathy because he chooses not to face his problems. Holden is a character that causes his own sadness.
His constant failing at school evidences that he isn’t planning to have a common future by having a job like most people would. It was evidently explained that Holden doesn’t fit in because he doesn’t want to be part of humans’ corrupted society. Regardless of how one feels about society, it is evident that its flaws made a teenager retract from accepting humans’ adult world, and instead negated to be a part of it.
Holden dislikes phonies and thinks of them as people who try to be something they are not. He loathes people who showed off because it seems unnatural every time they do not act like themselves. Holden does not allow himself to have friendship because of his dull attitude. In the beginning of the book, the reader knows that Holden is lonely when he separates himself from the rest of the Pencey students by watching the football game from Thomsen Hill and not the grand stands. Holden is not a very sociable person partly because he finds himself better than many others.
The flaw with this type of conditioning is that kids grow up unsure of where they should be in the overall community. Another problem is that it causes an instability in the work place, because at some point in history, there would have been a lack of a specific type of workers and the society cannot mass produce humans to fit the work’s criteria as they please. In the New World the past is suppressed because nature vs nurture conditioning is completely eliminated and is replace... ... middle of paper ... ...e also doesn’t understand why his father rejects him. Being exposed to Shakespeare has allowed John to verbalize his own complex emotions. Other Alphas, on the other hand have almost no sense of real emotions other than feeling pleasure.
Salinger’s voice is not only seen through Sally, bu... ... middle of paper ... ...ch to him because he really likes her. Holden has a low self-esteem and never goes to meet Jane. When Holden remembers her incident with her stepfather the “booze hound”, he gets emotional and empathetic towards her. Holden’s inability to reach out to Jane is a representation of his weakness. He lacks the confidence and courage to talk to her because of the troubling issues he already has.
In his mind, he is a loser and a failure. He does not have a job or even one person to share his happiness and sadness with. He won 't be able live in his potential if he continues to think of this way about himself. This is a humanistic approach because Philip is having a difficult time with life because he thinks negatively of himself- whether he realizes it or not. The following approach is cognitive.