The weakness of the reply lies in confirming that the doctrine allows unjust actions, the point against which the objection was raised. However, it shows that even though Utilitarianism allows injustice, it is for a legitimate purpose of minimizing evil. Utilitarians hold that human actions should yield maximum benefit possible. According to the objection to the doctrine, maximum benefit is achieved at the expense of justness. The objection is refuted by stating that Utilitarianism promotes greater happiness, not unjust actions.
Lying weakens the purpose to serve justice, destroys the liars’s dignity, and messes up the records. But I think that rare situations justify lies. I believe lies to save someone's life or just to protect someone from a big danger is the only type of lie that is justified. Those situations are the only times I think it is OK to lie. It might seem that lying to get yourself out of trouble is a situation that makes the lie justified.
Although most lies are categorized as selfish, I hold that there are some lies that are told with good intentions. While such lies still involve some degree of deception, they do not seek to cause harm to others or to promote oneself as a selfish lie would. Ericsson terms this type of lie as a “white lie”, and goes on to say, “The white lie assumes that the truth will cause more damage than a simple, harmless untruth” (425). In other words, people sometimes fudge the truth out of concern for the well being and feelings of others. I say that this is not a bad or selfish lie because one is trying to spare hurt.
Secondly, the possibility of the right to lie is refuted on the basis of virtue ethics, which maintains that lying is morally wrong though the argument or claim is less strict as compared to Kant’s statement. Virtue ethics generally provides a different approach to ethics by focusing on character development of individuals. As a result, virtue ethicists tend to look at what people should be with regards to their character rather than determining the right or wrong of a behavior simply on the basis of reason and desired and undesired behavior (Mazur par, 5). In this case, virtues are desirable characteristics of individuals that make them act in a specific way. According to virtue ethicists, being virtuous is regarded as being ethical because it is a reflection of the individual traits of fairness and striving towards accomplishment of human potential.
It will show people who believe that deceit is morally wrong and it can only bring about distrust may need to re-evaluate their definition of deceit. There are several different types of deception such as a the myth’s we grow up believing in, a little white lie, trickery, pranks, manipulation, and lying. Each one has been classified as a degree of deceit, but we must take into account all of the reasons behind each one. Some of the deceptions are meant to keep our imagination and dreams alive; others are meant to save someone’s feelings; and a majority of them are lies that are meant to save ourselves or manipulate someone into doing us a favor. People are always cautious when it comes to the fine line between deception and the truth.
Instead of telling the truth, and hurting her fragile feelings, you would rather say a little lie, telling her that you love it. If you are lying to keep someone you care about from getting their feelings hurt, or their pride wounded, then what is the harm? In conclusion, there is nothing wrong with telling small lies, if you are doing it with someone’s best interest in mind. Secondly, it is okay to be untruthful if you are trying to protect people. In certain situations, it is safer, and more practical for you to tell a lie rather than putting a loved one in jeopardy.
I feel that this can be acceptable. If telling someone the truth could hurt them, distorting the truth could be the right thing to do. Honorable deception is lying to protect. One may want to protect someone's reputation, feelings or even to protect a relationship Some psychologists use the term "constructive lies" to refer to lying that strengthens relationships or lying out of an act of love. Although it is a form of deliberately lying, I feel that lying out of love or lying to protect is acceptable.
She adopted a broad definition of lying and she defined it as the statement that is made in order to deceive. Bok seems to distance herself from the views of both Kant and Aristotle in relation to the issues of lying. She disagrees with Kant that lying is always wrong and she states that there are situations when lying is necessary especially where it can save a life. On an equal measure she totally disagrees with Aristotle that an individual should balance between the benefits and harms to decide if lying is morally justifiable (Bok 54). He disagrees with the Aristotle approach because it ignores the damages that is done to the liar by trying to cover up such as loss of credibility if the truth is realized, use of a lot of energy in attempt to cover up, damaging of overall trust in the communication in the society and it increases a propensity to lie in the future.
Most of the cases of regulation that he examines display what Thomas Grey of Stanford calls “practical neutrality,” or an intervention of regulation meant to protect individuals from illocutionary speech acts that can incite violence against them or psychological harm that may be incurred because it is intrinsically the right thing to do (305). This kind of regulation has ties to moral and political values, therefore from a liberal standpoint is unacceptable regulation. Altman agrees that hate speech can cause serious psychological damage to those who are victim to it, but maintains that it is not reason enough to regulate hate speech. Instead, he says that the wrong involved in hate speech is the act of treating another individual as a moral subordinate. The interests of these individuals as well as the value of their life are viewed as being inherently less important than the interests and lives of the reference group.
Additionally, Snark also argues that lying can be selfish, as he states, “[Lying] is also awfully disrespectful. It’s saying that your needs are greater. That you’re the one who matters. Nobody else” (Medium 31). When people lie, it tends to be for their own benefit.