Autoimmune Disorder, Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

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Hashimoto's disease, also known as Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disorder first discovered in 1912 Germany by Hakara Hashimoto and is one of the first autoimmune disorders identified. It has become of the most common autoimmune diseases and is 7-10 times more prevalent in middle age to older women than in men. It is an organ specific T-cell mediated disease that affects the thyroid1. It begins when the antigen-specific T-cells are activated by some environmental factor causing the B cells to secrete thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb). The antibodies accumulate in the thyroid, destroying the tissue and associated follicles causing it to under produce thyroid hormone. Activation of the T-cells may be attributed to a number of different factors. Studies indicate that genetics, specifically the CTLA-4 (Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte Associated-4) gene, may play a major role in a person's susceptibility to the disease. However, it is not clear how many other genes are involved and what their implications are. For a genetically predisposed person, it has been suggested that the progression from subclinical to overt Hashimoto's thyroiditis may be attributed to certain environmental triggers such as an iodine imbalance, pregnancy, infection, smoking, and cytokine therapy2,4,5. There is also evidence that suggests Hashimoto's thyroiditis coexists with other autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, Addison's disease, Grave's disease, Type I diabetes, pernicious anemia, and celiac disease3,4 . In one journal article, "Immunogenics of Hashimoto's thyroiditis", Dimitry A Chistiakov summarizes the onset of the disease in two primary steps. First, the MHC (major histocom... ... middle of paper ... ... MD (August 2000). Gluten-dependent diabetes-related and thyroid-related autoantibodies in patients with celiac disease. The Journal of Pediatrics. Retrieved from http://0-www.sciencedirect.com.skyline.ucdenver.edu/science/article/pii/S0 022347600630421 Cooper, David S., MD - reviewer. (May 18,2010). Hashimoto's Disease. U.S Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Women's Health. Retrieved from http://www.womenshealth.gov/ publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/hashimoto-disease.html. Mayo Clinic Staff (unspecified). (January 2, 2014). Hashimoto's Disease. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hashimotos-disease/basics/symptoms/con- 20030293 Stang, Debra. Reviewed by Krucik, George MD. Thyroid Ultrasound. Healthline Networks, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.healthline.com/health/thyroid-ultrasound

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