Autism is a behavioral syndrome usually presenting behavior abnormalities before the child is 30 months of age. These behavioral abnormalities include marked social deficits, specific language abnormalities and stereotyped, repetitive behaviors (Piven, 1990). Although the exact etiology of autism is not known it is now believed that it is a dysfunction of one or more unidentified brain systems and not the result of parental and environmental influences. Variations in symptomology and in prognosis among autistic persons depend on both the severity and the extent of the underlying brain dysfunction (Repin, 1991). Several studies have been conducted including neuroanatomic imaging, microscopic neuroanatomic observations and positron emission tomography in order to locate this dysfunction.
Semin Pediatr Neur... ... middle of paper ... ..., Botolato NA, Walson P. Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network: Background and rationale for an initial controlled study of risperidone, Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 2000; 9(1): 201-24. 48. Arnold LE, Aman MG, Martin A, Collier-Crespin A, Vitiello B, Tierney E, Asarnow R, Bell-Bradshaw F, Freeman BJ, Gates-Ulanet P, Klin A, McCracken JT, McDougle CJ, McGough JJ, Posey DJ, Scahill L, Swiezy NB, Ritz L, Volkmar F. Assessment in multisite randomized clinical trials of patients with autistic disorder: The Autism RUPP Network. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 2000; 30(2): 99-111 49. Aman, M. The OSU RUPP-PI Project.
by a continuum of abnormal development in social interaction and communication combined with a restricted repertoire of activities and interests. Children with autism are typically diagnosed by the age of two, with the prognosis generally being poor. The American Psychiatric Association's 1994 estimated prevalence is about 1 per 1,000 individuals with males being diagnosed 3 times more than females. However, females are more likely than males to function in the mental retardation range (Gresham et al., 1999). Currently there is no known "cure" for autism.
Neurobiology 17,103–11. Johnson, C. P., & Myers, S. M. (2007). Identification and Evaluation of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders. PEDIATRICS, 120, 1183-1215. Levy, S. E., Mandell, D. S., & Schultz, R. T. (2009).
Sunita &Bliszta, J.L. (2012). Early Identification of Autism: A Comparison of the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers and the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health. 49(2013).
Individuals with autism most often have serious problems with social interaction and with communication and imagination, as well as unusual behavior patterns (rituals, preoccupations, and repetitive behaviors). D... ... middle of paper ... ...999, March 7] Hashimoto, T., M. Tayama, K. Murakawa, and T. Yoshimoto. (1995). Development of the brainstem and cerebellum in autistic patients. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,1, 1-18.
I. Introduction: Neurological disorders are complex in nature and often the least understood. Given the recent boom in imaging technology and other diagnostic methods, it is now possible to see more clearly into the scope of neurological development and accurately determine the etiology of these diseases. One of such disorders is Autism; a multifactorial condition impairing normal brain development. It affects many aspects of development, including social behavior, cognitive ability and communication skills1 and is commonly diagnosed in children before the age of three1.
Autism is a spectrum disorder. In the normal autism of early infancy there are the components from which this can take place but which are not developed. In 'total' pathological autism there has been such a profound arrest or regression that the building of this inner construct has been impeded or impaired so that the child is completely out of touch with the outside world and with people. Reaction to the outside world and people is in terms of bodily functions, organs and zones. (Tustin, 1972, p. 178) The indications and characteristi... ... middle of paper ... ...ng autism, autistic children most of the time have himerosal, mercury and neuro-developmental disorders as well that can not be found in normal children at the same time.
However, the impacts will depend on the child’s condition, and its severity, as well as the emotional, physical, and the financial resources available to take care of the child. Autism is a condition that affects a child’s brain functioning. It is a prevalent developmental disorder, which appears in children before the age of three. A child with autism is not able to express their needs like any other normal child because, this disorder affects their ability to communicate and interact with others. Therefore, this leaves parents and caregivers to play a guessing game on what specifically the child maybe asking for.
Koegel, Robert L., & Frea, William D. (1993). Treatment of social behavior in autism through the modification of pivotal social skills. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 369-377. Matson, Johnny L., Benavidez, Debra A., Compton, Lesley Stabinsky, Paclawskyj, Theodosia, & Baglio, Chris (1996). Behavioral treatment of autistic persons: a review of research from 1980 to the present.