Several studies have been conducted including neuroanatomic imaging, microscopic neuroanatomic observations and positron emission tomography in order to locate this dysfunction. Although some of the studies have reported abnormalities in various areas of the brain among the autistic patients, no common site or abnormality has yet been found. The criteria for diagnosing autism are those listed in the revision of the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R) of the American Psychiatric Association. According to this, the person must have been symptomatic since childhood and manifest a specified number of deficits that are abnormal for their developmental level in three aspects of behavior. These include qualitative impairment in reciprocal social interaction, qualitative impairment of verbal and non-verbal communication and imaginative activity, and a markedly restricted repertoire of activities and interests.
Dr Leo Kanner based his theory on 11 children who showed signs of withdrawal from human contact, this started at age 1 between the years of 1938 to 1943. In the 1940’s, the research of autism was so rare and this was a new case, Dr. Leo Kanner based the disability to be schizophrenia which in the eyes of the parents they thought they were at fault. In the 60’s, that is when the knowledge of autism and the treatments came clear. (Edelson Para. 8) Having the basic history of autism will let people understand where and how Dr. Leo Kanner had come across the disability.
The term autism was first used by psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in 1908. He used it to describe one of his patients that had schizophrenia. He used it to describe his patient who had withdrawn into his own world. The pioneers of the study of ASDs were Leo Kanner and Hans Asperger. They both worked separately and studied different children.
In actuality, autism, which was first described by Kanner (1943) in his study of 11 children with “autistic disturbances of affective contact” (US: American Psychological Ass... ... middle of paper ... ... genetics and environment play a role. Researchers have identified a number of genes associated with the disorder. Studies of people with A.S.D. have found irregularities in several regions of the brain. Other studies suggest that people with autism have abnormal levels of serotonin or other neurotransmitters in the brain.
In the 1940’s two doctors in different countries observed children displaying similar behaviors and deficits. One of the doctors was Viennese pediatrician Dr. Hans Asperger and the other was a child psychiatrist named Leo Kanner. Dr. Kanner was the first of the two doctors to report his observations. What he described were behaviors similar to those seen in children with what we call Autistic disorder. The behaviors affected the children’s communication, social interaction and interests.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is often the center of ongoing debates in the medical field. Critics have described ADHD as a diagnosis used to label difficult children who are not ill, but whose behavior is at the extreme end of normal range ( (K. Lange, 2010). However, unbalanced chemicals in the brain cause ADHD. It is not something children can control and it is more than a behavioral problem. “ADHD is not a disease per se but rather a group of symptoms representing a final common behavioral pathway for a gamut of emotional, psychological, and/or learning problems” (Furman, 2005).
Autistic disorder is also known as “autism.” Autistic disorder is the main form of autism that is seen in 60% of people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (Bernier pg. 13). Autism is diagnosed typically at the age of two or older. Before the age of two communicative skills have not been grasped and makes it difficult to diagnose autism. With autism people have trouble with communication skills, social interactions, and normal behaviors.
When a child is seeming to lack socialization skills, not able to communicate, or show strange repetitive behavior continuously; the child should be tested. There is not a pin pointed cause of ASD, but it many researchers believe it has something to do with defected genes or incomplete development of the baby’s brain. (Proctor, Young- Adams 2013) If autism is caught when it in its very early stages it make a big difference and may help improve cognitive and social skills. More test are being added to the testing of the autism diagnostic schedule to ideally detect the disorder at around eighteen months. (NIH 2013) Mainly autism is diagnosed in two category, autistic (classic autism) or autism ... ... middle of paper ... ...en the same age, but they become frightened of having their child labeled and what others are going to say.
In 1943 Kanner published his seminal work, “Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact”, in which he does a case study of 11 children (8 boys and 3 girls). Kanner outlines key aspects of each child 's life and personality. He carefully documented their severe anti-social behaviors (Kanner 217-220). Kanner defined their “autistic” condition as follows. “ The outstanding, “pathognomic,” fundamental disorder is the children 's inability to relate themselves in the ordinary way to people and situations from the beginning of life” (Kanner 242).
It will further outline empirical evidence derived from the review of two studies, collectively known as false belief tasks. The Sally-Anne task and the Smarties task, in particular, will be discussed and interpreted in support with the arguing thesis. There is no true causal definition of autism at a biological level, however, autism has been recognised to be a developmental disability affecting cognitive processing (Frith, 1997). The key behavioural deficits that characterises autism are, the inability to interact in social situations, impairments with comprehending verbal and non-verbal communication and the lack of understanding pretend and imaginative play (Wing, 1970, as cited in Sachs, 1995). Other behavioural characteristics contributing to the diagnosis of autism are, engagement in repetitive automatic movements and activities, preference to be alone, displays of self-destruction and aggressive behaviour, sensitivity to external stimuli, attacks of anxiety, and some display savant abilities (Sachs, 1995; Frith, 1997).