Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition that develops during a child’s first few years of life (Lesack, Bearss, Celano, & Sharp, 2014). This disorder occurs significantly more often in boys than girls (Goldstein, Naglieri, Rzepa, & Williams, 2012). Autism is part of a group that is known as pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), which also includes Asperger’s disorder, Rett disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder and pervasive development disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (Sunita and Bilszta, 2012).
Some characteristics children represent with autism is the inability to make eye contact, to initiate and respond communication, and smile back at someone else who is smiling at them. Autistic children have trouble with understanding messages and interpretation of facial expressions, body language, tone of voice, and emotional expressions directed toward them. There is also a sense of fear that they have when there is a change of environment (Goldstein, Naglieri, Rzepa, & Williams, 2012). These children also show many developmental struggles like reciprocal socialization, interests, motor skills, cognitive skills, thinking, and activities. On top of all of those developmental difficulties as many as 70% of children with autism spectrum disorder show challenging behaviors, including aggression, disruptive behaviors, and cause injury to themselves. When a child with autism has disruptive behaviors is can lessen the response to educational intervention and then turn into further separation from children around their age, which increases the caregivers stress related to disruptions in daily activities (Lesack, Bearss, Celano, & Sharp, 2014). These difficulties or characterization...
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Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that effects the brains development. It is characterized by affecting communication, cognition and social interaction. The spectrum of the disorders ranges from a mild condition called Asperger’s syndrome to a more severe form, which severely impairer’s development. The Office of Communications and Public Liaison states that the disorder affects one and eighty-eight children, however ASD effects boys more frequently than girls (Office of Communications and Public Liaison, 2013). ASD emerges in all age, ethnic and socioeconomic groups. The significant varied character and severity of the disorder is why ASD is considered a spectrum that poses a broad range of symptoms.
Autism is a developmental disorder that appears within the first three years of a child’s life. It affects the brain's normal development of social and communication skills. Autism affects 1 out of 68 children. It is also the fastest growing disability in the United States. There are multiple types of Autism, some children are considered high functioning, and some are low functioning. “High functioning” is when a child with autism can function in life, and completes jobs, and chores with little to no help. “Low functioning” is when a child with autism cannot complete simple daily tasks without help, and (or) constant supervision.
For today’s assessment we have administered the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule – Second Edition. The ADOS-2 is a standardized semi-structure assessment of language, social interactions and play, or imaginative use of materials in individuals who have been referred because of a possible autism spectrum diagnosis. The ADOS is designed to elicit behaviors that are relevant to the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. The module used is determ...
Early intervention is effective in treating autism spectrum disorder in many ways. One important way it has been proven effective by research is by increasing a child’s cognitive skills. When a child is first diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, they will likely be diagnosed as having a cognitive delay. Research shows that early invention services, such as applied behavior analysis, occupational, and speech therapy has helped increase IQ scores in children with autism spectrum disorder. In one study, children who received up to twenty hours a week of early intervention services had an average rise in IQ points of 17.6 (Solis, 2010). This increase in cognitive skills benefited children in the classroom setting. After receiving extensive early intervention treatment, children typically performed better on standardized testing. With an increase in cognitive skills and better achievement on standardized testing, children were able to be placed in less restrictive classroom settings (Smith, 199...
This paper will review five studies concerning the behavior and development of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The studies investigate how autism effects communication, socialization, cognitive development, and a number of other areas. Researchers use many different types of scales to measure and compare the difference between children with ASD and typically developing children.
Every year doctors diagnose thousands of adults and children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Due to the growing awareness of autism and recent developments in technology, scientists and doctors can now discover and observe the effects of autism on society, and people. Starting with its discovery, researchers have been able to diagnose people more effectively. Doctors are beginning to discover what causes this disorder, and are currently trying to find ways to prevent and treat it. Many places have opened their doors to people with this disorder, creating autistic friendly environments where people are patient and understanding. Schools have also become accommodating to autistic children and adults. Autism also puts great strain on family and home lives.
Every single day is a struggle for an autistic child and his or her family. Autism affects all aspects of a child’s life from their ability to show affection to their family to being able to do simple tasks such as communicating and thinking in ways that we take for granted. Autism is defined as a developmental disability in which children experience abnormalities in social functioning, language, often act in puzzling ways, and usually appears before the age of three (Mash &Wolfe, 2010). Although the exact causes of autism are unknown there does seem to be a strong genetic component. Having a child or family member with autism is a constant battle of emotion and frustration. Everyone wants to help the people they love when they have difficulty adapting but the difficulty in helping a child with autism arises in the fact that these children do not think or process information like everyone else does making it very difficult to reach them and help them function in a society they don’t understand. Skinner (1963) and his early work led the way in finding a method for assisting people with autism and aiding them in gaining wider ranges of functioning and better quality of life.
Autism is a disability that interferes with the normal development of the human brain in the areas of reasoning, social interaction and communication skills, typically appearing during the child's first three years (“What is Autism?”, the Autism pages 2004, from the Autism society of America). It occurs in roughly 15 to 20 of every 10,000 births and is five times more common in males than in females (“Autism: What to look for”, pamphlet by the Autism Society of the Phils.). Although recent advances have been made with respect to possible roots, the exact cause of this condition remains unknown. Children and adults with autism typicall...
Autism numbers are on the rise in the U.S and more and more cases of autism are being diagnosed each day. Many parents are unaware that they have a child with autism. Signs of autism are not easily detected so, parents who suspect that they may have a child with developmental delays or a child with autism would have a hard time distinguishing autism from other developmental problems. There are no specific causes or cures for autism but with today’s technology that just might change.
Children diagnosed with a Developmental Language Disorder at a young age benefit from early intervention. The earlier a child is able to receive treatment, the more effective the treatment will be. This article explains how most children diagnosed with autism earlier than 3 years of age retain that diagnosis when they turn 3. This diagnosis is critical because it can influence how the child receives early intervention. The goal of this study is to determine how accurately a child could be diagnosed with autism and retain that diagnosis 1 year later. The study also seeks to determine characteristics that children with autism demonstrate under the age of 3.
Symptoms. Children begin showing symptoms of autism as early as twelve months of life, making two to three years old the typical age of diagnosis. The symptoms of autism are truly of a spectrum, hence the name, meaning no child is affected by the disorder in quite the same way. However, symptoms of autism are generally categorized into three basic areas of impairment, the first of these being sociability. Most children with autism have trouble comprehending basic social situations. A child with autism likely makes little eye contact, fails respond to other people in their environment, and reacts inappropriately when others show extreme emotion. It is common for children with autism to misread emotional cues because they focus on a person’s mouth while speaking instead of their eyes as would an unaffected person. Likewise, people may have difficulties understanding the emotions of an autistic child. Many times their body language or tone of voice will not match the emotion that they are trying to express. The second area of impairment is communication. Children with autism ...