Attitude and Navigation Systems

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Gyroscopes mainly defined as the devices or sensors used to measure the angular velocity due to which they are also known as angular rate sensors. Gyroscopes consists of a spinning mass i.e. a disk or wheel, which is mounted on a base to make its axis turn freely in one or more directions and maintain its orientation regardless of any movement of the base. Gyroscopes are used to measure the rotation angles and rates between the axis system of a moving body and a fixed body. Gyroscopes are stabilized by their spin and resultant angular momentum.

The gyroscopes were firstly taken into use in aircrafts around 1916 and thereafter, gyroscopes are used in aircrafts till now. The continues improvements are made on the spinning gyroscopes from that time and in 1960's, laser and optical gyroscopes were introduced for the first time in aviation sector and soon they found great commercial success in the field of aeronautics and military applications. MEMS gyroscopes are introduced to the industry in last 2 decades. MEMS gyroscopes have brought great improvement to the use of gyroscopes in aerospace industry with several advantages over the traditional devices used. [1]

A micro-electromechanical systems, or MEMS gyroscope, are an inertial sensing integrated circuit that measures the angle and rate of rotation in an object or system. Almost all the micro machined gyroscopes use vibrating mechanical elements to sense the rotation as shown below in the figure 1.

Figure1. MEMS gyroscopes

All the MEMS gyroscopes use vibrating mechanical elements (such as proof-mass) to sense rotation. Mems gyroscopes can be easily miniaturized and batch fabricated using micromachining techniques because they have rotating parts that require no bearings. MEM...

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