normal. Anxiety, for example, affects the mind in ways that go far beyond our cognitive resources and load. According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, a relationship between arousal and performance exists. The relationship can be explained by a seemingly normal curve, where when arousal increases, performance improves until arousal is too high, where performance then begins to decline. Because anxiety can be defined as an increase in arousal, it makes sense that psychologists study trait-anxiety individuals
Anxiety is at some point felt by the majority of people. Anxiety can be referred to as an emotion or a disorder. The emotion can be distinguished by the feeling of unease about an upcoming event or an unusual circumstance. The nervous disorder is characterized by excessive worry that originates from no evident reason. Mundane tasks or interactions can trigger panic attacks or excessive anxiety in someone with this mental health disorder. Anxiety disorders will often interfere with a person’s daily
months in an individual who does not meet criteria for any other depressive, bipolar, or psychotic disorder (American Psychiatric Association 2013). This depressive disorder can be diagnosed by a clinician who must make sure there are no underlying causes of the symptoms. In order for a clinician to diagnose recurrent brief depression, distress and impairment in normal functioning must be present (Sue and Sue 2013). Recurrent brief depression is caused by a combination of factors including biological
consume it in various different doses. Caffeine is in about 100 medications, stimulants like NoDoz, cold preparations, appetite suppressants and mood elevating agents (Addicott, 2009). The psychophysiological effects of the stimulant include alertness, anxiety, heart rate, and these effects can result in a different performance on different task (Acevedo, 1988). The research questions whether the effects of caffeine have a positive or negative impact on student’s cognitive abilities. During tasks that
thinking and speech, as well as negative symptoms, including flat affect, apathy, lack of motivation or drive and social isolation. Schizophrenia is also associated with cognitive, social, and functional deficits and abnormalities in mood, such as anxiety and depression (Larson, Walker, & Compton, 2010). Due to the chronic and impairing nature of schizophrenia, recent research has focused on identifying and treating individuals in the prodromal phase of illness, also referred to as the at-risk mental
All ¬anxiety disorders show distinct expressions of behavioural, subjective, and physiological symptoms of anxiety (Andrews, Creamer, Crino, Hunt, Lampe, & Page, 2004; Franklin & Foa, 2002). Research consistently showed that although basic anxiety symptoms are present in most if not all disorders, they are indeed manifesting differently in each (Caprara, Steca, Cervone, & Artistico, 2003). Therefore, the exact nature of feared stimuli cannot be predicted and is generally distinctive from individual
ed.). New York: Oxford. Pp. 187-191. Luria, A.R. (1970). The functional organisation of the brain. Scientific American, 222, 66-78. Martin, G. N. (1998). Neuropsychology. England: Prentice Hall McNaughton, N. (1995). Brain mechanisms of anxiety. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 24(20, 11-18. Russel, J. D & Roxanas, M. G. (1990). Psychiatry and the frontal lobes. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 24 113-132. Schultz, M.L. (1999). Awakening Intuition. Great Britain:
Prefrontal Cortex Lesions from Neurosurgeon and Patient Perspective In this paper, I will discuss lesions of the prefrontal cortex from the perspective of the practice of neurosurgery (in particular, the sub-field of psychosurgery) and then I will consider some studies that look at the implications of lesions to the prefrontal cortex to the brain and behavior, from the perspective of the patient with the lesion. Initially, I will start with the history and explanation of psychosurgery.