Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Introduction Among the behavioural disorders that are commonly diagnosed, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent among youth and children. It is a persistent disorder that is attributed to neurobehavioral problems. About 3%-5% of all the children in America are affected by ADHD (NINDS Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Information Page, 2011). The disorder is characterized by inability to concentrate or focus on a task and exercise behavioural inhibition that is normally related to age. There are several warning signs which can indicate the possibility that a child may be affected by the disorder. These include difficulties adhering to instructions, talking a lot, disorganization, leaving homework or other chores unfinished, and having problems paying attention to details or responding (NINDS Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Information Page, 2011). The fact that the disorder is considerably prevalent and costly has prompted research efforts in finding treatment and management approaches for ADHD. The research into this mental illness has been largely inspired by findings regarding its physiological basis which has paved way for discovering treatment approaches. It is imperative for those taking care of children affected with ADHD to understand the diagnosis, prognosis and phenomenology of ADHD so as to provide quality care for the affected (Sefa, 2007). In this paper, the physiological basis as well as the symptoms of ADHD will be discussed. In addition, the paper will discuss a biological approach to ADHD treatment and compare and contrast the genetic and environmental influences of the disorder. Finally, a summary of two articles reg... ... middle of paper ... ...n From the above discussion, ADHD is a mental illness that not only affects children but also adults. It is characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity, disorganization, and inability to focus and complete tasks without being distracted. In order to unravel the physiological basis of ADHD, research has targeted neurobiological and neurochemical aberrances notable in individuals with ADHD. The use of psychostimulants in the treatment of ADHD alters the functioning of the brain by enhancing attention through increasing blood flow in the frontal lobe areas. Current treatment trends emphasize the use of a multimodal approach so as to comprehensively address the complex nature of ADHD. From the discussion, ADHD is seen to be influenced in a significant way by both genetic and environmental factors. Genetic research has focused on twin studies and familial studies.
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