There are three types of attachment: secure attachment; anxious resistant attachment and anxious avoidant attachment. Bowlby describes these attachment styles as: “These are first the pattern of secure attachment in which the individual is confident that his parent (or parent figure) will be available, responsive, and helpful should he encounter adverse or frightening situations. With this assurance, he feels bold in his explorations of the world. This pattern is promoted by a parent, in the early years especially by mother being readily available, sensitive to her child’s signals, and lovingly responsive when he seeks protection and/or comfort. A second pattern is that of anxious resistant attachment in which the individual is uncertain whether his parent will be available or responsive or helpful when called upon.
According to Bowlby (1969), “the primary caregiver acts as an example for future relationships through the internal working model for the child”. (McLeod 2007). There are three main features of the internal working model: a model of others as being trustworthy, a model of the self as valuable, and a model of the self as active when interacting with others. (McLeod 2007). It is this mental representation that guides future social and emotional behaviour as the child’s internal working model guides their responsiveness to others in general.
An Ambivalent attachment child shows extreme distress when separated from mother. In stranger anxiety, the infant avoids the stranger and shows fear. When reunited the child approaches the mother, but doesn’t touch her. In another situation child cries and explores less than the 2 other attachment types. Lastly, Avoidant attachment child shows no sign of suffering when separated from the mother.
Attachment is “the relational bond that connects a child to another important person; feelings and behaviors of devotion or positive connection” (Gordon & Browne, 639). A child’s attitude, health and behavior can help a caregiver determine if an attachment has been healthy or unhealthy to their development. The different forms of attachment that may be healthy or unhealthy to a child’s development are called “secure” and “insecure”. In order to understand the role that a caregiver plays on creating and maintaining secure attachments in toddlers and preschoolers, we must first determine what secure and insecure attachments are. A secure attachment is one that is formed when a child feels as if they can depend on their caregiver.
Infants will find secure bases in other relationships as long as they surround themselves consistently and for long durations of time. Overall both theorists want to establish the influence they believe will help these infants later as they progress over time. Either it is helping children create learned behaviors or instill protective factors through secure attachments with their primary caregivers. Although most general views are conflicting it is important to notice the main motivation is on the infant and their development. Both theorists attempt to compensate through the techniques of daycare they execute to ensure the child is receiving satisfactory care and developing appropriately.
Avoidant attachment is when a child is somewhat willing to explore an unfamiliar environment, but does not look at the caregiver leave or return. Ambivalent attachment is when a child is unwilling to explore an unfamiliar environment, but seems to have mixed feelings about the caregiver. The child would cry when the caregiver leaves, but cannot be consoled by the caregiver upon arrival.
The next attachment style is the insecure-avoidant attachment. Insecure-avoidant infants explore more frequently than securely attached infants in strange situation experiments. Also, they tend to show minimal response when separated from their mother and even show avoidant behaviour towards her such as averting her gaze. When picked up, the infants are not clingy and do not resist release (ibid.). Moreover, there is the ambivalent attachment style where infants who exhibit this style display immediate distress and anxiety when separation from their mother occurs.
Nurturance, also is an important form of attachment. Attachment involves infants to have positive relationships with caregiver, parent’s responsiveness, and nurturance. Attachment focus on the child relationship and the impact it has on the child’s development. In the case where a child is left alone, a child can sense something is wrong and that can
A theory that can relate to today’s society and the way people behave is the attachment theory. It refers to the strong emotional and physical bond between an infant and a caregiver which is essential to personal development. As part of the attachment theory there are three attachment styles. First is secure which refers to the infant having a strong relationship with its caregiver, almost as if they seem to be clingy. Second is avoidant in where the child is negligent as the child has learned to be self sufficient.
Bowlby’s Ethological Theory of attachment is the theory developed by John Bowlby stating that an infant’s emotional tie to his or her caregiver is an evolved response that promotes survival (Berk, L., 2014, p 196). Bowlby found that the relationship a child has with its mother or caregiver may directly affect how the child is able to form relationships in the future. Bowlby theorized that the bond an infant had with its primary caregiver could also be the reason for a child’s maladjusted behavior if the caregiver deprived the child of attention (van der Horst, F. P., & van der Veer, R. 2010, p 25-45). If the attention that a child is receiving from his or her caregiver is lacking then this may very well affect the behavior of the child in