Neurology 1988; 38(suppl 2): 14-18. Weiner HL, Mackin GA, Orva EJ, et al. Intermittent cyclophosphamide pulse therapy in progressive multiple sclerosis: final report of the Northeast Cooperative Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Group. Neurology 1991: 41: 1047.
When excessive pro-inflammatory mediators such as cytokines are released they cause inflammation in a systemic manner that can cause sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (being the non-specific response to non-infectious cause) (Sagy, Al-Qaqaa, & Kim, 2013). Pro-inflammatory mediators also activate the complement system, which results in increased inflammation and upregulation of specific receptors that lead to cellular injury and apoptosis seen in severe sepsis and organ dysfunction (Ward, 2008). Organ dysfunction can occur in one or more organs such as the lungs, liver, kidneys and or heart and often results from a lack of... ... middle of paper ... .... (2012). Severe sepsis in pre-hospital emergency care: analysis of incidence, care, and outcome. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 186(12), 1264-1271. doi:10.1164/rccm.201204-0713OC Trautmann, M., Scheibe, C., Wellinghausen, N., Holst, O., & Lepper, P. M. (2010).
Multiple Sclerosis Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a complicated chronic deteriorating disease that has an effect on the central nervous system (CNS). This disease causes destruction of the myelin around the nerve fibers. “The exact etiology of Multiple Sclerosis is unknown; however, it is thought to be an immune mediated disease. MS is characterized by CNS inflammation, demyelination, and axonal loss” (Compston & Coles, 2008). Typically, it is described by early relapses and remissions of neurological signs of the CNS.
Through arterial stress and injury, arterial endothelial cells become inflamed causing lesions to form on the arterial walls (Huether & McCance, 2012). The inflamed endothelial cells express adhesion molecules that attract and bind to macrophages, T cells, and other immune cells (Galkina & Ley, 2009). The now endothelial cell-bound macrophages release inflammatory cytokines that lead to an increased proinflammatory response; the further inflammation of the tissue leads to further injury of the vessel wall (Galkina & Ley, 2009) (Huether & McCance, 2012). From here plaque formation is a downward spiral. Toxic oxygen radicals are generated by the inflammatory response.
Due to the extensive involvement of NF-κB signaling in human pathologies, continuous efforts have been made to develop inhibitors for this pathway. Reports suggest that processes of inflammation and angiogenesis are interlinked. Newly formed blood vessels participate in the continuous recruitment of inflammatory cells, resulting in the release a variety of cytokines and growth factors which promote angiogenesis. A series of positive feedback loops creates a vicious cycle that increases inflammation, transforming it into the chronic process. This concept of reciprocity also includes oxidative stress, which leads to chronic inflammation th... ... middle of paper ... ... DM .
66 No.10, pp. 1389-1409. Panjrath, G.& Messerli , F. (2006) “β-Blockers for Primary Prevention in Hypertension: Era Bygone?” . Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. Vol.
Non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin is used to treat inflammation, but meanwhile bring devastating side effect. According to Medilexicon's medical dictionary, inflammation is a fundamental pathologic process that consists of a dynamic complex of histologically apparent cytologic changes, cellular infiltration, and mediator release that occurs in the affected blood vessels and adjacent tissues(2). Inflammation responses to foreign substances such as bacteria or in some instances to internally produced substances (3). It is part of the body’s immune response. Acute inflammation has rapid onset and quickly becomes severe in hours and days.
Works Cited 1. Agapotiv, Alexei & Haynes, William. “ Role of Endothelin in Cardiovascular Disease.” Journal of Renin0Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, 3.1 (2002): 2-10. . 2. Bohm, Felix & Pernow, John.
British Journal of Neurosurgery, 23(4), 376-386. doi: 10.1080/02688690902977662 Yen, C., Sheehan, J.P., Schwyzer, L., Schlesinger, D. (2011). Hemorrhage Risk of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations Before and During the Latency Period After Gamma Knife Radiosurgery. American Stroke Association, 42, 1691-1696. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.602706
It leads to organ damages due to blocked blood vessels; furthermore, it leads to life-threatening bleeding due to wasting clotting factors and platelets when they are needed. According to Marieb and Hoehn, to do the blood clot, the enzyme, thrombin, and clotting factors are required. The clotting factors are represented with Roman numerals. There are thirteen different types of clotting factors. There are two ways to initiate the blood clot; the extrinsic pathway and intrinsic pathway.