The lack of land created a high demand and pressure to make the best use of what the Greeks could in fact farm, and those responsibilities for farming feel largely to the private households. Through the development of Greek culture much of the responsibility for faming shifted from citizens to slave labor. Many of the households responsible for farming would have managed fruits trees, vegetables, and nuts, however, they were most successful in growing cereals, olives, and grapes in their Mediterranean climates. To overcome the vast majority of land that was not suitable for crops, Greeks relied heavily on the raising of livestock. Similar to both Mesopotamia and Egypt Ancient Grrek relied on the domestication on livestock such as sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle.
The initial organization of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations were as close to unification as Greek history allowed until the Macedonians arrived. However, these successful civilizations were not Greek but situated themselves on what became Greece and merely demonstrated a slight similarity in language. After the fall of the Mycenaean civilization, Greeks entered though disorganized and independent. The appearance of the polis united Greek-speaking people though its initial use was not for such. The Greek poleis was a community of relatives who worshipped gods in ceremonies and formed republics dominated by the nobility through its councils of nobles and eventually distinguished monarchy (80-81).
People looked to agriculture to keep their civilization running day to day. A large part of Greece is rocky, mountainous, and is partly made up of many islands. This caused the Ancient Greeks to not be able to farm and cultivate in a big part of the empire. Land that was full in nutrients necessary for crop growth was scarce. “The Greeks felt that their own climate was adverse and the soil poor”(Hanson 133).
Comparing and Contrasting the Political Philosophies of Ancient Greece The city-states of Ancient Greece gave birth to the many different forms of government that are now known by present-day society. It is through the numerous accounts of ancient historians that modern civilizations have learned the lessons of each governmental structure. This essay will discuss the many forms of government introduced by Ancient Greek city-states. Through analyzing the differences and similarities of each political philosophy, a conclusion will be made as to what forms of government were more effective for Ancient Greece, as well as how they apply to modern day government. The most popular form of government created by the Ancient Greeks is that of democracy.
Therefore; much grain trade was necessary because Greece land was very bad for agricultural purposes. Athens had grown industrially and commercially within time, and this was also a problem: overpopulation. Also, many Spartan tribes over and over attacked Greece and destroyed any crops that might grow in the soil. Peasants were also sent to work at farms but they lost care in their farms and found it better to live in the city, living off small amounts of money that came from doing state services. During this time, many people learned ways of math because they needed to know how much grain is needed per person.
Athens created the Athenian Democracy in the Greek city-state comprising the central city-state of Athens and surrounding the Attica. They were the first to rule as a democracy. In the Athenian direct democracy, the people whose age was 20 were allowed to go to assemblies and they also can vote on legislation and executive bill in their own right, whereas Roman Republic created the form of government which is a republic. This was balanced constitution which was not written in the documents and consisted in three elements, democracy, monarchy, oligarchy. Citizens of Roman elect representatives to rule on their behalf.
Today, much of the world’s governments have converted to democracies. In the Ancient World, there was only one truly notable example of a democratic society: The City-State of Athens. This is actually the birthplace of democracy, where instead of the rich or powerful ruling, it was the citizens of the city-state that held the power. This advanced way of government was so effective and well structured, it even laid the foundations for the development of our own democracy, right here in the United States, over 2,000 years in the future. Prior to Athens’s collapse during the Peloponnesian War, it truly had an efficient and very organized system of government.
Before creating the democratic form of government that the Athenians first used, Athens practiced the oligarchy. Athens had a center of government in their city state known as the polis. The polis was the city-state’s center for government. All around Greece, people were using a polis as their center of government. But rather than having democracy as their forms, they ranged from oligarchy (“rule by the few”) to tyranny (“rule by the tyrant”) and the in betweens of timocracy (“rule by the wealthy”) and aristocracy (“rule by the best”).
Like Athens, lower class people are at a large disadvantage in these countries. Athens and Sparta have set examples that some countries still follow today. The poleis Sparta and Athens had many different ideas on how to run their societies. They overcame their differences and fought off the Persian invasion to defend their homeland. Without this victory our history would look very different.
Athens’ economy also suffered because of the loss of men. After the war very few men returned, and those who did not r... ... middle of paper ... ...ut when Greece finally decided to try and conquer Persia Phillip II of Macedonia decided to invade them. Both Athens and Sparta were affected by the Peloponnesian War, but Athens was left in worse shape than Sparta. Athens was affected economically, politically, and militarily. Sparta on the other hand was also affected politically, and militarily but to a lesser effect.