An ESP programme acn use tests such as, In-class assignment results (formative), mid-term examination results (formative), final term examination/achievement test results (summative) as well as samples of students’ writing, self and peer assessment, and my personal observation to monitor the learning progress and make any changes that situational factors may require in the course design or the teaching methodology. 1.2. Choice of Assessment with its underlying principles Assessment refers to what students can or cannot do and this ability is measured against a set of learning objectives that have been proposed in the course design (Gronlund, 1981). For example, a diagnostic test which is a performance based test on an extended sample of writing (McNamara, 2000) can be used to have clear picture of students’ writing ability both grammatical and discoursal. Similarly, achievement tests in formative and summative formats are used to measure the learning progress that has been made to date.
Teaching and learning a second or foreign language is much like teaching in the general education classroom. ESL classrooms need structure, nurturing, and sufficient instructional strategies. With such diversity among adolescent ELs, it is important for teachers to learn as much as possible about their students’ background, prior knowledge, and experiences, and to have knowledge of strategies that directly address the needs of their students. Instructors need to build relationships of trust with their students and their families. Also, teachers need to establish predictable classroom routines and procedures.
Effective teachers must be competent in their subject area and have extensive knowledge of pedagogical matters. Mastery of content is of the utmost importance, in order, for teachers to effectively articulate the objectives of the various lessons. Teachers should possess a breadth of knowledge relating to how students best ascertain new information. In addition, teachers must be cognizant of all the resources available to them which will enhance the learning experiences of their students. Teachers should strive to create an environment that fosters positive student learning outcomes.
One of the responsibilities of educators is to prepare students to be equitable participates in a society that is constantly changing. Educational leaders are responsible for ensuring educational practices support the current trends to ensure students are prepared for today’s world demands. The implementation of change results in a swing of the educational pendulum. The swing of the pendulum is unavoidable due to the changing demands of society. The focus must be placed on establishing an effective plan in preparation for the changes without compromising the standards of the teaching profession.
An assessment should reflect real world applications of how knowledge and understanding are used. Assessments based on situations that are relevant to students' own experiences can motivate them to give their best performance. One of the most essential educational tools is the classroom assessment. When used properly, assessments can help educators better understand what their students are learning. Classroom assessments help educators identify students strengths and weakness, monitor student learning and progress as well as plan and conduct instruction.
They found out that teachers need to use multiple methods of assessments in order to accurately measure student progress. Teachers need to get to know their students and their performance, so when they analyze data they are able to understand it. They need to analyze the different assessments to find and utilize the ones that more accurately measure the students’
By educators having a strong classroom management can possibly end or avoid the increase of disruptive behavior (Diedrich, 2010). She believes that the use of positive reinforcement and rewards would motivate students to display appropriate social skills. Diedrich paraphrases an article by Chitiyo and Wheeler (2009) saying “educators can teach students appropriate behaviors by establishing classroom routines, modeling the desired behaviors, and building naturally occurring reinforcement aimed at displaying positive behaviors and improving the classroom environment
Statement of The Problem As more educators call for assessment for learning (Chappuis & Stiggins, 2002; Gavriel, 2013), attention has been paid to investigate how teachers use assessment in the classroom (Frey & Schmitt, 2010; Missett, Brunner, Callahan, Moon, & Azano, 2014). This is as important as understanding the rationale and perceptions of assessment strategies. Teachers need to have a solid knowledge and understanding of assessment so they can have an approach to assessment for learning (Greenstein, 2010; Stiggins, 2010). The alignment of instructions, assessment, and learning, involves teacher’s perceptions of the quality of lesson design, teaching strategies, and how both lead to accomplish the educational goals. However, many researchers
According to Austin and Sciarra, BIPs are defined as relevant, individual treatment, or approach designed to address and mitigate the adverse effects of specific maladaptive behaviors. In order to design an effective BIP, teachers must determine the purpose of the student’s behavior and collaboration among the student, teachers, parents, and relate services providers. The most important factor to remember is that BIPs need to be monitored and evaluated for
If student learning did not happen via one instructional method, the teacher must make the necessary accommodations to reteach the concept or skill. Next, it is not only used by teachers for feedback on instruction, but formative assessment is also used for providing timely, descriptive feedback to students and extends to allow for student self-assessment (Chappuis, J., Stiggins, Chappuis, S., & Arter, 2012; Popham, 2008). Formative assessment provides opportunity to provide specific feedback to students on where they are currently in their learning, and where they should be headed.