Impressionism was born from the urge to break free from the constraints of Art forms in the 19th century. Many studies under mentors who passed on the traditional styles painting form and figure, but some spoke of revolutionizing the art world. World events and public attitude toward art allowed impressionists to break free from the mainstream French Art scene.
Impressionism was initially forged out of a love for nature. The artists were interested in depicting reality as they saw beauty in even the mundane facets of life. The brush strokes and color changes are obvious and the choppy effect sometimes has to be viewed at a distance to determine the picture’s message. When viewed closely, the artist’s emotion is easily discernable with their brush strokes. When viewing impressionist work, it is almost as if you are viewing a memory of what the artist saw. As it loses its accuracy over time, it becomes less focused and sometimes more vibrant in color.
A group of up and coming painters developed the Impressionist art form in France in the late 1800’s. This group of painters, who called themselves “Intransigents”, consisted of Bazille, Monet, Sisley, and Renoir. Fed up with imitating the rigid style of those they studied under, they met on their way home from the studio discussing revolutionizing the art world. They longed to break from the mold. Édouard Manet’s painting of Luncheon in the Grass in 1863 became their inspiration to pursue the artistic form. Manet’s painting was an adaptation of Raphael’s engraving “Judgment of Paris” Years later, as they developed their craft, the need to display their art became apparent. At the time, the Salon was the only contemporary art museum, which was also an artist’s ticket durin...
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...ssionism revealed their craft at an opportune time, as the war had ended many were looking for something other than what the Salon was offering. Though they were criticized and rejected by some, they still pursued their craft influencing painters long after they deceased.
Brodskaya, Nathalia. Impressionism. New York: Parkstone International, 2012.
Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. Impressionism, in painting. 6th. Columbia University Press, September 2013.
O'Donovan, Leo J. "A promise of happiness -- origins of Impressionism." America. Vol. 171 . no. 17. November 26, 1994. 16-19.
Rewald, John. The History of Impressionism. 4th. New York, New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1973.
Tucker, Paul. "The First Impressionist Exhibition and Monet's Impression, Sunrise: A Tale of Timing, Commerce, and Patriotism." Art History 7, no. 4 (December 1984): 465-476.
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Gibbs, Beverly Jean. "Impressionism as a Literary Movement." The Modern Language Journal 36.4 (1952): 175-83. JSTOR. Web. 14 Jan. 2014.
During the 19th century, Paris went through a series of change as the medieval city developed into a modern metropolis. Innovations throughout this period as well as a change of attitude towards social classes and Academic art became the catalysts that birthed the artistic movement, Impressionism. Paintings such as Le Pont de l’Europe by Gustave Caillebotte, Interior View of the Gare, St-Lazare: The Auteuil Line by Claude Monet and Boulevard Montmartre, matin d’hiver by Camille Pissarro encapsulated the artistic and social contexts of Impressionism.
The Impressionism period for the longest time was considered to be the first distinctly modern movement in painting. The Impression period first started in Paris in the 1860s and its influence spread throughout all of Europe and eventually made it’s way to the United States. The originators of this time period were artists who rejected the official; government subsidized exhibitions, or what the French would call, “salons”, and they were consequently shunned away by powerful academic art institutions such as the, “Acedémie des Beaux Arts" (Academy of Fine Arts). Removing themselves from the fine finish and details to which most artists of their day aspired, the Impressionists during this time, their goal was to capture the momentary, sensory
“Impressionism” is a word that is mostly used within the artist community when referring to the artist movement. The first time the term impressionism was used was when a writer was talking about Claude Monet’s painting Impression: Sunrise. Technically however, the term was first officially used in 1877. The artists involved in this movement were called impressionists because of their simplified works. These artists were part of a group where artists shared their similar styles and techniques. This all happened between 1867 and 1886. Some of the more well-known and important artists were Monet, Renoir, Pisarro, Sisley, and Morisot. Monet and Renoir both panted scenes of La Grenouillere (restaurant and bathing place on a small branch of the Seine at Croissy). Their work helped define the beginning of this new period of art. The
Impressionism is the name given to the art movement that changed art forever. Starting in France in the 1860's, Impressionism was considered a radical break from tradition.1 Through the work of artists including Édouard Manet, Claude Monet, Pierre Renoir, Camille Pissarro and Edgar Degas impressionism was born. Impressionists painted outside and focused greatly on light and its reflection. They painted quickly on primed white canvas with short visible brushstrokes and placed separate colours side by side letting the viewer’s eyes mix them. (Techniques uncommon to art at this time) Regarding their subject they again broke with tradition and painted anything they wanted including the modernity of Paris and the everyday life of its citizens. This new found freedom regarding subject along with unconventional techniques greatly displeased the L’École des Beaux-Arts where academic artists would have worked on subjects such as history, royalty and mythology.2 In contrast to the impressionists their work had a smooth varnished finish, showing little to no evidence of the artist’s presence. Having introduced Impressionism, I aim to in this essay analyse why the city of Paris is at the heart of the impressionist movement. Firstly by looking at how Paris helped create the impressionist movement and secondly how Paris fuelled it.
Walcutt, Charles Child. "Sherwood Anderson: Impressionism and the Buried Life." The Achievement of Sherwood Anderson. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1966. 158-170.
Before Impressionism came to be a major movement (around 1870-1800s), Neoclassical and Romanticism were still making their impacts. Remembering last week’s lesson, we know that both those styles were different in the fact that one was based on emotion, while the other was practical and serious. However, one thing they both shared was the fact that the artists were trying to get a message across; mostly having to do with the effects of the French Revolution, and/or being ordered to do so. With Impressionism, there is a clear difference from its predecessors.
“To my mind, a picture should be something pleasant, cheerful, and pretty, yes pretty! There are too many unpleasant things in life as it is without creating still more of them” (P.A.R Quotes). Pierre-Auguste Renoir was an artist that put his heart and soul into a painting. Prior to Renoir there were many artists. Renoir was a man after diversity and difference in his paintings. He did not want to be like everybody else. He and many others felt this way, forming a new art called Impressionism. This new concept originated in France in the 1860’s. In 1874 Impressionism really took off, these artist were going against Realism in every way. These artist of Impressionism only became a group because they were rejected by the Salon des Refuses. Their
Impressionist painting was the beginning of a cultural shift away from religious and mythic themes, to subjects and styles that are less static such as everyday life of the general people, and the fleeting moments around them. As history progresses, so does art and the movements they create. The impressionism movement started in an already war-ravaged France where the evolution of ideals and way of life were as impermanent as the subject of the paintings of the time.
Claude Monet is often accredited as the leading member of the Impressionist movement. His work in Impression, Sunrise is the painting that gave birth to the movement. Here we can perceive Monet’s use of a limited palette: muddy blues and gray establish a somewhat somber mood – contrasted by a bright orange, representing the sun at dusk. Seizing the viewer’s attention is a figure in a boat, an effect the artist has achieved by painting the background boats a lighter, blurrier gray. Not only is this technique executed in this painting, but on a vast majority of Monet’s work. However, Monet’s Water Lilies series could serve as a counterclaim to such statement, as they fail so focus on a single subject, instead blurring everything on the canvas. Edgar Degas exceeds beyond Bardo’s definition of Impressionism. Though his seamless use of perspective and focus on subjects appear a good fit to the Impressionist movement, Degas referred to himself as a Realist or Independent artist. Indeed, he did share a preference for depicting the middle class – emphasizing figures, lights, and shadows – rejecting the Impressionist color theory.
Although at first glance, Realism and Impressionism appear to be completely separate movements in 19th century art, they in fact were both bred as a response to the new order of Europe that had evolved as a result of the marks made by both the Industrial Revolution and a series of European continental wars. Realist painters and Impressionist painters alike faced controversy in challenging the status quo of the Salons, and took risks to no longer romanticize drastic changes within society caused by industrialization, but instead acknowledge them head-on. Edouard Manet in particular exemplified the gradual transitions from Realism to Impressionism and even to Post-Impressionism. His then-radical methods of integrating of scientific observation, new roles of women, and political turmoil into his paintings earned him both the vilification of an older generation and the admiration and veneration of a newer one. Through his innovation of existing painting techniques and his encouragement of later revolutionary painters, Manet helped transform the canvas of the European art world in the mid 1800s.
I will discuss Post Impressionism by using three works, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, Still Life with Basket of A...