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Artificial Intelligence

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The three necessary things of every substance are the type of atoms that created it, the method the atoms are positioned, and the method that the atoms are fused to each other (Trefil, J., & Hazen, R. 2010). The atom is the fundamental structure of chemistry; atoms are comprised of the three essential elements, protons, neutrons, and electrons (Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011). Protons transmit a positive charge and neutrons do not transmit any charge, while electrons transmit a negative charge (Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011). The center of the atom is comprised of protons and neutrons; together they create the nucleus of the atom. (Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011). The most important attribute of an atom is its atomic number, symbolized by the letter Z (Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011). This attribute is expressed as the number of protons in the nucleus (Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011). If an atom has a Z of 6, it is carbon, whereas a Z of 92 matches up to uranium (Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011). In short quantity of protons in the nucleus governs the chemical properties of an atom (Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011).

Orbits describe the chemical properties of dissimilar atoms (Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011). All electron orbits have a quantum number n and orbits with the same value of n make up a shell (Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011). Hydrogen, lithium, and sodium have like properties with one electron in the outermost shell (Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011). The valence shell which is the outermost shell of electrons controls the chemical actions of an atom (Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011). The amount of electrons in the shell is contingent on just how many remain after all the inner shells are full (Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011)...

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Robin. (2010). Artificial Intelligence Overview. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from

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Schulz, M. (1999). The End of the Road for Silicon? Macmillan Magazines Ltd. Retrieved

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Tech Target. (2011). Microchip. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from

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Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of Science Education (n.d.)

http://education.jlab.org/atomtour/

Trefil, J., & Hazen, R. (2010). The Sciences: An Integrated Approach (Rev.ed). [Ebrary

Reader version]. Retrieved from https://campus.ctuonline.edu
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