Artificial Intelligence

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Over the past decade, educational institutions have increasingly offered online, web-based courses. While there has been a great deal of research comparing the effectiveness of online and traditional courses (Young, 2006), there has been less research on how to use instructional design strategies to increase student engagement, student satisfaction, and achievement in online courses (Gunter, 2007). Research has shown that instructional immediacy can increase cognition and student success (LaRose & Whitten, 2000). Educators teaching online have turned to various technologies to improve student-to-instructor interactions. Personal response systems, teleconferencing tools, and computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments have been used (Soh, Khandaker, & Jiang, 2008). Educators have used chat sessions to facilitate communication, as well. However, students often are required to meet in a chat room or teleconference during predetermined times. While having synchronous meetings does improve student-to-instructor interaction, these systems are largely passive (Soh et al, 2008). Artificial intelligence is a technology that can provide immediate responses to user questions and it can adapt to individual users needs. This paper will discuss what artificial intelligence is and how artificial intelligence has been used. It is hypothesized that the use of artificial intelligence in education can increase student success and engagement. Artificial intelligence can be defined as the science and engineering of creating intelligent machines, computer programs in particular (McCarthy, 2007). There are multiple branches of artificial intelligence or AI, as it will be referred to for the remainder of this paper. Log... ... middle of paper ... ...al Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education , 18 (2). Thomas, R. C., & Milligan, C. D. (2004). Putting teachers in the loop: Tools for creating and customising simulations. Journal of Interactive Media in Education , 15. Wampler, R. L., Dryer, J. L., Livingston, S. C., Blackenbeckler, P. N., Centric, J. H., & Dlubac, M. D. (2006). Training lessons learned and confirmed from military training research. Research Report 1850, U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. Young, S. (2006). Student views of effective online teaching in higher. The American Journal of Distance Education , 20 (2). Zhang, L., Gillies, M., Kulwant, D., Amanda, G., Robertson, D., & Crabtree, B. (2009). E-Drama: Facilitating online role-play using an ai actor and emotionally. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Educational Society , 19 (1).

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