The Congress of the Confederation passed very significant pieces of legislation dealing with the Old Northwest, the area of land south of the Great Lakes, east of the Mississippi River, and to the northwest of the Ohio River. The Land Ordinance of 1785 established the public land policy of the United States that lasted for more than 75 years. The Land Ordinance of 1785 provided that the land of the Northwest should be surveyed and sold with the proceeds sent to the Congressional Congress to help alleviate the national debt. They land that was surveyed was to be divided into townships six miles squared, each of which was then to be separated into thirty-six segments of one square mile each. In this monumental piece of legislation, the sixteenth section of each township was to be set aside for public schools.
During the Revolutionary War, on June 12, 1776, the Second Continental Congress representing all of the thirteen colonies under British control assembled a draft of the Articles of Confederation; the first of two doctrines that resulted in the eventual unification of the divided colonies, establishment of a self government, and the ratification of today’s U.S. Constitution. The first U.S. constitutional doctrine ever written were the Articles of Confederation, composed during a time when the thirteen British colonies were still in a Revolutionary war with Great Britain. On November 15, 1777 after a year of debate, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation. It didn’t become effective though, until it was ratified by all thirteen states in 1781; a task that proved to be difficult after some states refused to cooperate. Under the Articles of Confederation the British colonies were to unite, become individual self-sovereign states, and distinguish themselves as the United States of America.
. . (112) For all intents and purposes there can truly be no protest against the sovereign, as regardless of previous position, one covenants with all others who have authorized the sovereign when one seeks to place themselves among those assembled to form a commonwealth. That is, one subverts their predispositions that are counter to the majority’s and aligns with them for the purpose of preserving an agreement that aims for unity and peace, manifested by the institutional sovereign. To protest the sovereign then is to protest the covenant one has entered into as well as the covenant that exists with all others.
America has been built on freedom throughout the years. Freedom to speak, freedom to choose, freedom to worship, and freedom to do just about anything you want within that of the law. America’s law has been designed to protect and preserve these freedoms. The First Amendment guarantees freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition. It assures citizens that the federal government shall not restrict freedom of worship.
That’s what Federalism is all about, balancing the power between the federal government and the states. The United States is not a dictatorship or run by tyranny, everyone including the normal citizens of America have the freedom to have a say and speak out about what’s best, however leaders are necessary. All this is covered in the Constitution under the laws and regulations of Federalism.
The very First Amendment provides freedom of religion, speech, and press to allow U.S. citizens to openly criticize any matter, political or not, and not be prosecuted for it. The freedom of defense with firearms allows the citizens to be on equal terms with any force against them is included in the Second Amendment. The protection of privacy of personal living space and belongings are protected by the Third and Fourth Amendments. Clearly the founders of the Constitution had the rights of the people at the forefront of their intentions, and not the potential power they could have gained for
John Jay took his vows on October 19, 1789. John Rutledge took both pledges in open court on August 12, 1795. Oliver Ellsworth took both vows in open court at the sitting of the Supreme Court of the United States on March 8, 1796. John Marshall took his promises on February 4, 1801. Roger B. Taney took both promises of office on March 28, 1836.
The states would retain a residual sovereignty in all areas which did not require national concern. The very process of ratification of the Constitution, he argued, symbolized the concept of federalism (77). He said: This assent and ratification is to be given by the people, not as individuals composing one entire nation, but as composing the distinct and individual States to which they respectively belong... The act, therefore, establishing the Constitution, will not be a national but a federal act (qtd in
“The Constitution is the guide which I never will abandon.” words of George Washington. In Philadelphia, on September 17, 1787, George Washington and the Delegates of the Constitutional Convention signed and agreed to The Constitution of the United States. The exploration of creating a new government with the United States Constitution, led to encounter other constitutions. This encounter affected how the government will run by the rights people have, the laws that were made, and the branches. Around the 1780’s, The Founding Fathers were going over some constitutions and having meetings to see what they agreed and what they disagreed.
Law gave the Supreme Court the right to hear such suits in its original jurisdiction (not on appeal from a lower court). 1. Court Refused Request B. Marshall’s powerful opinion a. The constitution is, by its own terms, the supreme law of the land b. All legislative enactments, and all other actions of the government, are subordinate to and cannot be allowed to conflict with the supreme law c. Judges are sworn to enforce the provisions of the Constitution and therefore must refuse to enforce any governmental action they find to be in conflict with it III.