less efficiency than younger children, suggesting that people may become more imitative as they mature, and selectively imitate particular models with high levels of fidelity (McGuigan et al., 2011). Also, children are more likely to overimitate the demonstrations from an adult versus a child (McGuigan et al., 2011). In addition, children tend to overimitate action when it comes from a knowledgeable teacher versus a naïve demonstrator (Buchsbaum, Gopnik, Griffiths, & Shafto, 2011). In other words, in the pedagogical case children are more likely to overimitate by reproducing the entire demonstrated sequence (Buchsbaum et al.,
Kasari, Chang, and Patterson (2013) stated that, “There is a need for more rigorous tests of children's ability to pretend to determine the place of pretending in ...
Baillarageon and DeVos successfully explain the history of Jena Paiget’s theory. In their article, both reveal the experiment taken by Paiget, and others, to decide how object permanence affects infants and at what age they are prone to have it as a tool for the outside world. They both explain different outcomes of many experiments, which is a very helpful when trying to really think how many conclusions can arise from a test. These authors are trying to reveal that Piaget, and others, really thought about different types of ways to approach a concept that people do not think about nowadays. These authors really highlight what infants can think about when in these experiments. Each experiment was thoughtfully explained with the steps and a illustration to thoroughly present what happened. These researchers wanted to inform any psychology students how people in the past have approached this topic and how this concept is essential to our survival in ...
One, social disapproval, in which each participant was sat in a room with an experimenter and asked to play with toys while the experimenter read a book, if the child began to engage in self-injurious behavior the experimenter would make statements of disproval towards the participant. Two, academic demand, in which a child was asked to complete academic tasks, the participants were praised for successfully completing each task, however if they began to engage in self-injury the experimenter would stand up immediately and ignore them for 30 seconds. In the third, unstructured play, participants again were placed in a room with the experimenter and toys but no demands were made and they were given praise for playing. In the last condition, the participants were placed in a room alone without toys, and were simply observed.
Woolley, J. D., & Wellman, H. M. (1990). Young children’s understanding of realities, non-realities, and appearances. Child Development. 946–961.
...focus of attention by showing his watch to his friends so that everyone could be around him. The child showed the ability to differentiate between reality and pretend by interacting with objects and communicating with the other children.
Lev Vygotsky Zone of Proximal development explored the idea that children spend significant amount of time learning new words and how to use them in context. He called this stage “self-talk” when a child would talk internally to themselves learn the meaning and then recall the word later in a conversation. A child participating in acting would be able to learn new words from scripts or use words they wouldn’t normally use in their everyday life. Albert Banduras theory’s also being exercised with this activity because the child is watching how other react to what they say and do. They must pay special attention to what they say and do to get the response they want. Bandura believed that how a person acts is based on the environment of the child and their cognitive abilities. So if a child learns now that they will not always get what they want, later down the road their reaction will be different if they see how to react rather than naturally reacting. Here’s an example a child sees another student crying because their ice cream fell on the floor. The child having a meltdown is ignoring the fact that the adult is trying to fix the situation by getting him another scoop while the child observing sees this and recognizes the problem solving skill the adult has. There for later down the line if that child that was watching spills something they will know not to have a melt down because it can be easily fixed. Hence the saying “don’t cry over spilt milk”. As for the painting exercise the child would be working on their cognitive development skills because they would be recognizing how others feel and how they feel. They would also have to exemplify this in their
The article cites very little of the actual facts of the study making the claims harder to accept and more susceptible to critique. The study itself seems to have overlooked some added external effects and made some assumptions critical to the issue. One factor discussed in class is the size of the study and the people comprising the study. The study size is a decent study size of 37,000. However, the study does not specify some serious factors, such as family size, the structure of the family, the age of the participants and how long the study followed children.
A good thing about this research is the sample size, as there are 111 children involved in the study the results are more likely to be generalisable as its probable that the group is fairly diverse.
The amount of study this developmental feature has attracted is indicative of its importance in respect of cognitive development. As a precursor to planning, reasoning and decision-making, imitation is a vital first step on the path to internal symbolization and abstract representation. Additionally, imitation between mother and infant allows the infant to learn through repetition of event that it is effective as a means of communication and is the beginning of representation of the mother offering an expected response. It is arguable that this is a foundation in social relatedness and actual cognitive thought in infants.