Army Strategies, Campaign and Battles of the Civil War and Reconstruction

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Army Strategies, Campaign and Battles of the Civil War and Reconstruction Mass Armies =========== From the start of war, it was clear that it would be fought by mass citizen armies and not by professional troops. The Union’s and Confederates governments view was that the main requirement in 1861 was to raise men as quickly as possible. It accepted locally and privately raised volunteer units, which were less expensive than recruiting regular troops. In the summer of 1861 it became a problem to hold volunteers to manageable numbers. Both governments should have constituted as a national reserve the hordes of men who wanted to serve but instead, were sent back home. President Davis so no other possibility in 1962, that to introduce national draft to get new recruits. Confederacy introduced the first Conscription Law in March 1862, which said that every white male-aged 18 to 35 was liable for military service. Conscription was very unpopular but did succeed in increasing the Confederate army. In March 1863 the Union finally adopted a system of conscription for all able-bodied men aged 20 to 45. This time the Conscription Act was heavily criticized due to the fact that rich men could avoid the draft by hiring a substitute or paying $300. Fewer than 10% of the troops who fought in the Civil War were actually conscripted. By 1865 around 900,000 men had fought for the Confederacy. Strategy and Tactics ==================== In 1855 the smoothbore musket, which had been the main infantry weapon used in wars was supplanted technologically by the rifle-musket. Although rifling was not new, loading them befor... ... middle of paper ... ...cy was also able to purchase commerce raiders, which caused massive damage to Northern merchant shipping; altogether the North lost some 200 ships to the raiders. By 1865 over half the American merchant fleet had been effectively lost. The last serious crisis between the Union and Britain was in the summer of 1863. Lincoln’s government was aware that the British shipbuilders were building two ironclads for the Confederacy, which would have the potential to cause massive damage to the North. The British government, as Adams was aware, had no intention of allowing the rams to be sold and in the end both vessels went into service with the Royal Navy. In August 1863 Confederate Secretary of State Benjamin, convinced that Britain would never grant recognition, ordered Mason to end his mission and withdraw from London.

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