Cloning is the process of extracting the DNA out of a donor’s cell and implanting this genetic code in another cell in order to grow a being with identical genes, thus virtually duplicating the donor. The term clone refers to the new being that has identical genes to the donor. There are three types of cloning, when the media reports on cloning they are generally referring to reproductive cloning. There is also recombinant DNA Technology, and therapeutic cloning (McGee, Human Cloning Debate). Reproductive cloning is a technology used to generate an animal that has the same nuclear DNA as another.
Cloning is described as a process of producing exact genetic copies of different cells, organisms or many others (animals, organs). Cloning has been examined to be the process of producing clones of the exact DNA. An example of cloning would be the famous “Dolly The Sheep”. “Dolly (July 5, 1996 - February 14, 2003), a ewe, was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult cell. The technique that was made famous by her birth is somatic cell nuclear transfer, in which a cell is placed in a de-nucleated ovum, the two cells fuse and then develop into an embryo” (Science Daily).
The nucleus is then transferred to an unfertilized ovum from which the nucleus has been removed. The daughter cells from the earliest divisions are removed, and grown in culture or implanted into host mothers. Genetically identical offspring to that from which the original cell was taken is then produced. The first attempts at artificial cloning started at the beginning of this century. An embryologist named Adolph Edward Driesch allowed the eggs of a sea urchin to develop into the two-blastosphere stage (the early stage of embryonic development in humans and animals), and then he separated them by shaking them and then allowing them to grow.
It increased the scientific research of learning about human genetic codes and discovers the possibility of cloning. According to Vos (2004), “In 1984, Steen Willadsun cloned a sheep from embryo cells, which were the predecessor to Dolly’s method of cloning.” In 2002 Boisselier chemist and CEO of Clonaid, cloned Eve the first baby to be cloned and was 7lbs; she is known to be a healthy and happy baby. Eve was created by an America woman of 31 years old who donated her DNA for a cloning process. The woman didn’t give her name, but her embryo was implanted and then gestated to the baby, with that it would make an identical twin as an exact genetic duplicate of the mother. The reason why she decided to donate her DNA was because her husband was infertile of resorted cloning.
They see their dreams return back from ashes as the doctor describes a new technique called pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. He explains the couple that this procedure consists of creating embryos, with both of their genes. These embryos are later analyzed for any genetic disease. Those with a genetic disease are discarded, leaving only the “healthy” ones, which are later injected into the woman’s uterus through in vitro fertilization. After the decade of the 90’s, much process has been made in the field of genetics, human genetics.
On July 5, 1996, an adult sheep clone known as Dolly was created by using the somatic nuclear cell transfer technique and became the first clone from an adult somatic cell (Lewis 2001). Dolly marked a significant accomplishment in the field of cloning. Cloning research, which began during the 1950s under Robert Briggs and Thomas King, had come a long way (Campbell 2004). In order to create Dolly, scientists Wilmut and Campbell needed to use certain techniques in order to ensure that the clone zygote developed in the same manner as a normal embryo (Lewis 2001). Several steps were taken so that this feat could be accomplished, all of which were based upon previous research by scientists in the field of cloning.
One form of genetic engineering that I have been most interested in was genetically modified babies. This is when you are able to select certain traits and characteristics that you want your baby to have as they are a fetus. This occurs by replacing all unhealthy cells or unwanted traits that cause infertility with parts of that cell from another healthy donor parent. Genetically modifying babies is a form of genetic engineering that is detrimental to society because it could cause possible abnormalities, genetic castes to appear, and parents and children may gain unwanted characteristics. Genetically modifying babies is a form of genetic engineering that is detrimental to society because it could cause possible abnormalities.
“They then transfer the DNA of the donor animal’s somatic cells into an egg cell or oocyte it has its own DNA containing nucleus removed. With other animals the main experiment conducted in order to clone is splitting embryos in test tubes. Then they implant the results in embryos into the wombs of the adult animal” (“Cloning Fact Sheet”). For many years the controversy of human cloning still seems to... ... middle of paper ... ...tionship between stem cells and cancer cells needs to be more clearly understood if stem cells are to be used to treat human disease (“Cloning Fact Sheet”). There can be a huge advantage for using cloning.
This is a kind a kind of complicated question; a simple definition for cloning would be a copy of the DNA but it is hard to explain. Cloning is not yet approved for humans in the United States of America as a genetic reproduction created by scientists, since it is a complex experimentation but I agree with it being approve. As a definition we can say that cloning is the act an asexual reproduction perfectly done with an example of DNA in the physiological and biochemical experiment with an original cell. The dictionary definition means that from a cell in an individual creates another exactly like above, because the characters that can display a human being due to genes inherited from parents. Obtained by cloning the individual has the same genes as the parent, sexual reproduction is replaced by artificial reproduction, but the genes provides a single person, the individual will have the same genes, but it is scientifically proven, it is possible that their features can vary.
The first one is Molecular cloning, this focuses on when a DNA from an organism is transferred to a self-replicating genetic element such as a bacterial plasmid. In other words, a small piece of the DNA strand is removed and united with a plasmid which reproduces itself to create multiple copies of the same DNA code. This type of cloning is also called gene cloning. The second one is Organism cloning, and this involves making an identical copy of an entire organism and a good example would be Dolly the sheep. This type of cloning is also called reproductive cloning.