James F. O'Gorman, Dennis E. McGrath. ABC of Architecture. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998. Document. October 2013.
(Image taken from Tranchtenberg, Marvin, Isabelle Hyman. Architecture: From Prehistory to Postmodernity. Second Edition. Prentice Hall, Inc. New Jersey: 2002.)
...signer George Nelson claims that ‘design is a response to social change’, which, in fact, can be argued for due to the newer and progressed developments that have been implemented in society; such as the iPhone and the Toilet. However, there have also been developments such as high-rise buildings and graphic designs that have caused there to be social change due to the industrial revolution, which opened doors for these designs. In conclusion, design has its form and its function; it works as a cycle so there is not really an answer as to whether it is a cause of social change or not. George states this because society, especially in the modern movement is largely influenced by new innovative designs and technologies, and in order to keep up and satisfy those individuals in the community, one must come up with a design to stay updated with the social change.
For instance, highly populous and famous cities such as Oslo, New York, Alexandria, and San Francisco hold some of the important architecture projects that have shaped individuals’ lives. Reporter David Owen, in his New Yorker article “Psychology of Space”, argues how the architecture firm Snøhetta utilizes their magic through their projects to build people’s moods, shape their relationships with cities, buildings and other individuals, and create illusions with exhilarating effects. The author’s argument is rhetorically compelling because his arrangement of ideas, selection of words, and supporting evidence maintain his public engaged in the magic of architecture and persuade anyone reading his article that architecture plays a critical role in their lives in numerous
He suggests that the use of “electronic imaging prevents imagining and promotes thinking about architecture rather than bring architects, contractors, clients and critics to think within architecture” (275). Inspired by Frascari, the strategy of technography is encouraged (278). This is a “different way of thinking about the relationship between a [working] drawing and a future building. Rather than “simply Cartesian, technical lines showing edges, corners and joints these technographic drawings reveal both the symbolic and instrumental representations of the future building.. it is to make visible what is invisible”. Ridgway remarks, “The fact that any of this could be considered contentious indicates that extent to which architects have become alienated from the heart of their profession” (279). He asserts, “Part of any technography must be an acknowledgement of the historical context of construction knowledge. This is not only so we can better understand our rich architectural ancestry, but because it re-establishes a connection with the origins of our profession in building” (279). Rather than a “miniature projected representation of an imagined building, details are drawn as poetic constructions themselves, following the logic of drawing and not building and representing the “built detail symbolically, in addition to instrumentally. The symbolic and practical are one and the same thing” (280). “What are the symbolic qualities we are trying to embody in our buildings and how would we represent them in drawings?” becomes the question (278). These drawing “may not be easy or straightforward to understand or interpret.
Themes in metal music today reflect an open horizon of meaning this of which separates contemporary metal music from its predecessors. In an analysis of the different individualistic facets of the music, two facets were discovered. Metal music individualism is expressed in two extremes. One extreme represents a dominant male role while the other represents a male being dominated, either subjectively or objectively.
O'Connor, Mickey. "Tempest in A Beanpot." Architecture Mar. 2001: 126. Academic OneFile. Web. 29 Apr. 2014.
of their buildings. One of the basic questions that this paper will be seeking to answer is whether architects and critics accepted ...
On September 3rd 1856, Louis Sullivan, the “Father of Skyscrapers”, was born into a nation that faced the precipice of change. Modernism had just begun to enter the minds of philosophers around America. Sullivan was attracted to the early modernist ideas over the late modernist one, believing that he could perfect the buildings that he produced into functioning storage units. This belief was undoubtedly influenced by events that were occurring in the nation during the late nineteenth century. One of the most influential events was the Great Chicago Fire. After the Great Chicago Fire, Sullivan realized two key pieces of information. The first was that his works could be destroyed at any time, therefore he didn’t attempt to spend an extensive amount of time designing his building. The second was that one of the main reasons that the buildings of the time were made out of wood which could easily burn. To fix that problem, Sullivan needed a material that was sturdy yet not flammable to replace what had previously been a city based on wood. The Industrial Revolution achieved a solution for Sullivan’s dilemma. Steel, a substance created by infusing a small percent of carbon into iron, allowed for taller, sturdier buildings with lower cost in terms of affordable housing. Urbanization took hold of Chicago as well during the eighteen eighties and nineties. As immigration grew in America, the need for more affordable housing grew correspondingly. The creation of Sullivan’s steel based skyscrapers was the answer to the problem. Although he died April 14th 1924, Sullivan influenced many architects that would complete his dream of a fully functional Chicago. Louis Sullivan’s modern style of functional architecture was molded by the same forces...
Meijenfeldt, E. V., and Geluk, M. 2003. Below ground level: creating new spaces for contemporary architecture. Birkhauser
In the next months and years, we as a society will rethink everything from privacy to business organizations to architecture. Businesses will look at Morgan Stanley's experience-occupying much of the World Trade Center-and think again about the virtues of further decentralization of operations. Just as architecture in the 1970s seemed to respond to the turmoil of the 1960s (consider the fortress-like administration building at the University of Michigan or the FBI building in Washington), we may see architecture change in the future. A...
Jencks briefly explains post-modern aesthetics from their modernist predecessors’ and pinpoints the instant of modernism’s death, writing “Happily, we can date the death of Modern Architecture to a precise moment in time… Modern Architecture died in St. Louis, Missouri, on July 15, 1972 at 3:32 p.m. (or thereabouts)...” (23). Unlike Jencks, literary scholars talk about the first, most original or famous representatives of modernism, but they completely avoid pinpointing an ultimate end to the movement. Due to architecture’s visual character and Jencks’ early, authoritative, and internationally read scholarship, the differences between modern and post-modern aesthetics are often clearer in architecture than in literature. Architecture provides a helpful visual counterpoint for modern and post-modern aesthetics in literature. According to him, architectural post-modernism favours pluralism, complexity, double coding, and historical contextualism.
Curtis, W J. "11. Skyscraper and Suburb: America between the Wars." In Modern architecture since 1900, 144-158. London: Phaidon, 1996.
Behind every architectural work there is an architect, whether the architect is one man or woman, a small group, or an entire people. The structure created by any of these architects conveys a message about the architect: their culture, their identity, their struggles. Because of the human element architects offer to their work not just a building is made, but a work of art, a symbol of a people, a representation, is also created.